West Flowing Rivers

In this article, the following important rivers of Peninsular India- the Narmada river, the Tapi river, the Sabarmati river, the Mahi river, the Luni river, and the Ghaggar river are discussed.

Narmada River

The Narmada is the westward flowing river of Peninsular India.

Source of origin of the Narmada river: The Narmada rises from the western flank of Amarkantak plateau in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

Confluence or mouth of the Narmada river: The Narmada river drains into the Gulf of Khambat (the Arabian Sea) near Bharuch in the state of Gujarat.

Major Tributaries of the Narmada river

  • The Orison River
  • The Tawa River
  • The Sher River
  • The Shakkar River
  • The Hiran River
  • The Hathni River
  • The Barna River
  • The Choral River
  • The Maan River

Course of the Narmada River

The Narmada river first follows a meandering course through the hills near Mandla in Madhya Pradesh and then turns northwest to pass the city of Jabalpur. It turns southwest and then enters the rift valley between the Vindhyas and the Satpura ranges at the Marble Rocks area. Then, it turns more westward and the river continues across Madhya Pradesh until it flows into the state of Gujarat. Important cities on the banks of the Narmada river are Jabalpur, Hoshangabad, Maheshwar, Handia, and Mandhata.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Narmada river system:

  • Sardar Sarovar Dam- The dam is part of the Narmada River Valley Project. It is the second-largest in the world in terms of volume and size. The dam is located near Songadh in the state of Gujarat. Though the foundation stone of the Sardar Sarovar Dam was laid in 1961 by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, it has been inaugurated very recently in 2017 since it was marred by controversies. According to the government, the dam will prove instrumental in increasing the agricultural output and revenue of the region and will serve as a major power producer in the country.
  • Indira Sagar Dam- It is also part of the Narmada River Valley Project. This multi-purpose dam is built on the Narmada river in Narmada Nagar in the Khandwa district in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Bargi Dam- It is one of the first completed dams under the Narmada River Valley Project. The dam is located on the Narmada river in Jabalpur district in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Tawa Dam- The dam has been constructed across the Tawa river (a tributary of Narmada) in the Hoshangabad District of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Maan Dam- Built under the Narmada River Valley Project, the dam is constructed across the Maan river (a tributary of Narmada) in Dhar district in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Jobat Dam- It is also part of the Narmada River Valley Project. The dam is constructed across the Hathni river (a tributary of Narmada) in Alirajpur district in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

Other facts related to the Narmada river system:

  • The river flows in a rift valley between the Vindhyas in the north and the Satpura in the south.
  • The river forms a picturesque gorge in marble rocks.
  • The Narmada forms the Dhaundhar waterfalls, southwest of Jabalpur.
  • It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India.

Tapi River

The Tapi (Tapti) river is also a westward flowing river of Peninsular India.

Source of origin of the Tapi river: The Tapi rises in Gawilgarh Hills from a place near Multai in Betul district in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

Confluence or mouth of the Tapi river: The Tapi river drains into the Gulf of Khambat (the Arabian Sea).

Major Tributaries of the Tapi river

  • The Purna River
  • The Girna River
  • The Panjhra River

Course of the Tapi river

It flows in the westward direction in a rift valley in the Satpura range, across the Jalgaon region in the state of Maharashtra, and through the plains of district Surat in the state of Gujarat state before draining its water in the Gulf of Khambat, an inlet of the Arabian Sea.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Tapi river system:

  • The Ukai Project- The project is a joint venture between the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. A dam is constructed on the Tapi river in Ukai in the state of Gujarat.
  • The Kakrapar Project- The project is flagship irrigation and hydro-electric project of the state of Gujarat. A dam is constructed at Kakrapar.

Other facts related to the Tapi river system:

  • The Tapi river like the Narmada river also flows in a rift valley.

Sabarmati River

Source of origin of the Sabarmati river: The Sabarmati river rises from the Aravalis in Udaipur district in the state of Rajasthan.

Confluence or mouth of the Sabarmati river: The Sabarmati river drains into the Gulf of Khambat (the Arabian Sea).

Major Tributaries of the Sabarmati River:

  • The Wakal River
  • The Harnav River
  • The Hathmati River
  • The Vatrak River
  • The MAdhumati River
  • The Sei River

Course of the Sabarmati River:

The Sabarmati river flows through the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Sabarmati river system:

  • The Dharoi Dam- It is constructed across the Sabarmati river in Dharoi in the Mehsana district in the state of Gujarat. It is a multi-purpose dam constructed to serve the north Gujarat region with irrigation, electricity generation and flood control purposes.

Other facts related to the Sabarmati river system:

  • Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad are two main cities standing on its banks.
  • The Sabarmati is a seasonal river receiving varied rainfall and has been frequented by floods in the past.
  • Gandhi, father of the nation, established an ashram on the banks of this river, the Sabarmati Ashram, an embodiment of peace, struggle, sacrifice, courage, and hard work.

MahiRiver

The Godavari river is the longest river in Peninsular India. It is known as the Dakshin Ganga or Vridha Ganga (old Ganga) because of its age, size, and length. It is navigable in the delta region.

Source of origin of the Mahi river: It originates from a place called Trimbak located in the Western Ghats in Nashik district in the state of Maharashtra.

Confluence or mouth of the Mahi river: The Mahi river drains into the Gulf of Khambat (the Arabian Sea).

Major Tributaries of the Mahi river:

  • The Som River
  • The Anas River
  • The Panam River
  • The Goma River
  • The Mesri River

Course of the Mahi river:

The Mahi river flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Gujarat. Vadodara is an important city standing on its banks.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Mahi river system:

  • The Mahi Project- Under the project, a dam has been constructed across the river Mahi in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The reservoir created by the dam has been named as Jamnalal Bajaj Sagar.

Luni River

The Luni River is the longest river system of Rajasthan.

Source of origin of the Luni river: It rises from a place near Pushkar in two branches- Saraswati and Sabarmati which join with each other at Govindgarh. From here, the river comes out of the Aravalis and is known as Luni.

Confluence or mouth of the Luni river: The Luni is an Ephemeral river. The Luni river discharges water on land and develops Rann of Kachchh.

Major Tributaries of the Luni river:

  • The Bandi River
  • The Khari River
  • The Jawai River
  • The Guhiya River
  • The Sukri River

Course of the Luni river:

The Luni river flows in westward direction till Telwara and then takes a southwest direction to drain into the Rann of Kachchh. The basin of the river extends over parts of Ajmer, Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Rajsamand, Sirohi and Udaipur districts.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Luni river system:

  • Sardar Samand Irrigation Project- Under the project, a dam has been constructed in the Pali district in the state of Rajasthan.
  • Jawai Dam- It is constructed across the Luni River and is located in the Pali district in the state of Rajasthan.

Other facts related to the Luni river system:

  • Due to its high saline content, the Luni river is also known as the Lavanaravi or Lavanavati, which means "salt river" in the Sanskrit language.

Ghaggar River

Source of origin of the Ghaggar river: It rises from a place in the Nahan Hills in the state of Himachal Pradesh.

Confluence or mouth of the Ghaggar river: The Ghaggar is also an ephemeral river. It drains itself in the northern Rajasthan.

Major Tributaries of the Ghaggar river:

  • The Kaushalya River
  • The Markanda River
  • The Sarsuti River
  • The Tangri River

Course of the Ghaggar river:

The Ghaggar flows through the states of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan.

Other characteristics of the Ghaggar river system:

  • The Ghaggar river is seasonal in nature and is dependent on monsoonal rainfall.

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