Warm Temperate Eastern Margin Climate

It is found along the eastern margins of the continents between 20 and 35 N and S latitude. The climatic features in the region are similar to the monsoonal climate with rain during the summer and dry weather during winter

Variations of warm temperate eastern margin climate

  1. China Type: Temperate monsoon or China type found in most parts of China and is a modified form of monsoonal climate.
  2. Gulf Type: Though less pronounced, the overall climate resembles the China Type. It is found in the south-eastern parts of the USA bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The continental heating during summers induces an inflow of air from the cooler Atlantic Ocean.
  3. Natal Type: In Southern Hemisphere, this climate is witnessed in New South Wales, Natal and Parana-Paraguay-Uruguay basin. This is often referred to as Natal Type of climate and is influenced by the on-shore Tradewinds all round the year.

Map Showing Distribution of the climatic region in the world



  • It is typified by a warm moist summer and a cool, dry winter.
  • Occasionally, the penetration of cold air from the continental interiors may bring down the temperature to the freezing point.
  • The relative humidity is little high in mid-summer but for most of the time, the climate is pleasantly warm.
  • Rainfall is more than moderate and ranges between 60 cm to 150 cm and there is a uniform distribution of temperature throughout the year.
  • Rain comes either from convectional sources or as orographic rain in summer, or from depressions in prolonged showers in winter.
  • Local storms also occur. Example: typhoons, hurricanes.
  • The rainfall is adequate for all agricultural purposes and hence the areas are densely populated.
  1. China Type:
    • It is the most typical of the warm temperate eastern margin climate.
    • In summer due to intense heating of the continental interiors of the heart of Asia including Tibet, a low-pressure system is set in which attracts the tropical Pacific air stream.
    • This is witnessed as the South-East monsoon in the region.
    • In winter, there is an intense high pressure over Siberia and the continental polar air stream flows outwards as the North-West Monsoon, bitterly cold and very dry.
    • There is little rain but there is considerable snow.
    • The region also experiences intense tropical cyclones called typhoons that originate in the Pacific Ocean and are most frequent in the late summer.
  2. The Gulf Type:
    • The Gulf-Atlantic regions of the USA experience this type of climate similar to the China type but with less the monsoonal characteristics.
    • The warm Gulf stream and the on-shore Tradewinds help bring down the range of temperatures and there is heavy annual rainfall of around 59 inches.
    • The amount of rain is increased by thunderstorms in summer and by hurricanes in September and October.
    • Due to intense local heating, the region also experiences violent tornadoes leading to heavy destruction.
  3. Natal Type:
    • The narrowness of the continents and the dominance of maritime influence eliminate the monsoonal elements.
    • The South-East Tradewinds bring about a more even distribution of rainfall throughout the year.
    • The annual range of temperature is low and rain comes in prolonged showers

Natural Vegetation

  • Due to heavier rainfall, the region supports luxurious vegetation.
  • There is perennial plant growth and the conditions are well suited to a rich variety of plant life.
  • The lowlands carry both evergreen broad-leaved forests and deciduous trees, similar to the tropical monsoon forests.
  • In the highlands, are various species of conifers such as pines and cypresses which are important softwoods.
  • Eastern Australia - Eucalyptus
  • South-Eastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, north-eastern Argentina - Parana pine, the quebracho, wild yerba mate trees.
  • Natal: palm trees

Economic Development

  • These regions are the most productive part of the middle latitudes since there is adequate rainfall, no prolonged drought and the cold season is warm.
  • This shows that the growing season is almost continuous.
  • The temperate monsoon regions are the most intensively tilled parts of the world.

Farming in Monsoon China

  • Monsoon China along with southern Japan and other parts of the eastern margin climate regions accounts for almost a third of the world population.
  • It is the world's greatest rice-growing regions and a third of the world's rice is grown in China.
  • Monsoon China has ideal conditions for paddy cultivation: a warm climate, moderately wet throughout the year, and extensive lowlands with moisture-retentive alluvial soils.
  • The Chinese practice 'wet-paddy' cultivation and calls for endless hard labour. Thus the region calls for a huge population.
  • Farming is usually on a subsistence basis. But progress has been made towards double and treble cropping which has increased the total rice production.
  • Sericulture has also been practised in the region but is now on a decline.

Agriculture in the Gulf States

Agriculture in the Gulf States of USA differs from that of the Monsoon China. Rice is relatively less important and focus is more on corn, cotton and tobacco.

  1. Corn:
    • The humid air, the sunny summer and the heavy showers suit the crop well.
    • The region accounts for more than half of the world's corn production but exports very less.
    • Corn is used for fattening animals mostly cattle and pigs.
    • It gives twice as much food mainly starch per acre when compared to wheat and other cereals.
  2. Cotton:
    • It is the most prominent cash crop grown in the region.
    • The climate is very suitable for the cotton growing with its long, hot growing season with nearly 200 days being frost free and moderately high temperatures.
    • Fine quality cotton also comes from well irrigated dry areas.
    • The fibre is most vital to the economic well-being of the southerners in the USA.
    • It shapes their trade, prosperity and politics.
    • The most dreaded enemy of the Cotton Belt is the boll-weevil. The pest multiplies rapidly. The pest is responsible for the westward migration of the Cotton Belt.
  3. Tobacco:
    • It is another important crop of the region and incidentally is also the native crop of America.
    • The humid atmosphere, the warmth and well-drained soils enable the successful growth of tobacco in the Gulf States.
    • Around half of the tobacco in the international trade comes from this region.

Crop cultivation in the eastern margins of Southern Hemisphere

  1. In the coastlands of Natal, cane sugar is the dominant crop
  2. It is followed by cotton and tobacco in the interiors.
  3. Maize is also extensively cultivated for use as food and feed for cattle rearing.
  4. The extensive natural pastures provide valuable forage for both cattle and sheep.
  5. In South America rainfall is less, cattle and sheep are reared for meat, wool and hides.
  6. Mild winters favour animal rearing, as they can be kept out of doors for a long time.
  7. In Australia, the moist Tradewinds bring heavy rainfall to the coastal districts and these are thickly wooded.
  8. Giant eucalyptus trees are grown in the region.
  9. The region is chief source of Australia's milk, butter, cheese besides cotton, cane sugar and maize.

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