Policies Related to Science

Technology Vision Document 2035

Technology vision document 2035 gives the vision of technologies required for fulfilling the needs of Indians of 2035. It does not visualize the technologies that that would be made available in 2035, but it gives the vision of India and its citizens in 2035 and how technology would assist to achieve these goals. The Technology Vision document 2035 has been dedicated to the former President of India, Late Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.

The Technology Information, Forecasting, And Assessment Council (TIFAC) have geared up itself for the Technology Vision 2035. The Technology Vision Document 2035 was unveiled by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the 103rd Indian Science Congress on 3rd January 2016.

Aim

The Technology Vision Document 2035 in aims to ensure the security, enhance prosperity and enhance the Identity of every Indian. This is stated as “Our Aspiration” or “Vision Statement” in all the 22 languages of the 8th schedule of the constitution. It identifies 12 prerogatives which include six individual prerogatives and six collective prerogatives which should be available to every Indian.

Individual prerogatives

  • Food and nutritional security

  • Clean air and potable water

  • Universal Healthcare and public hygiene

  • Decent Habitat for all

  • 24x7 energy availability

  • Quality education, livelihood, and creative opportunities

Collective prerogatives

  • Safe and speedy mobility

  • National security and public safety

  • Cultural diversity and vibrancy

  • Climate and Disaster Resilience

  • Effective and transparent governance

  • Eco-friendly conservation of the natural resources

The Twelve identified areas of focus of vision document

  1. Education: 2035 marks 200 years of Macaulay's Minute on education which has had determining impact on the content and methodology of education and the medium instruction taught in educational institutions of India. The Technology Vision Document 2035 gives us the opportunity to think a fresh and draw the contours of an education system for the India of 2035. The collective goal and aspiration for the education sector is “Realising full potential of every Indian” under the technology vision 2035.

  2. Energy: the increasing population and the requirement of higher economic growth have lead to higher energy consumption in all sectors such as transport, industry, agriculture, domestic use etc. India currently faces an acute gap between the demand and supply of energy, and the changing needs of Indians ponder over what kind of energy sources and technology will be required in next few decades to fulfill the overall energy needs. The TIFAC has done an enormous task for building the Energy Technology Vision 2035 by adopting a consultative approach

  3. Environment: to tackle the increasing global environmental problems such as climate change will require the support of new environmental technologies. India is facing several environmental challenges and to overcome these challenges new eco-friendly and efficient technologies are necessary. The aim of Vision Document 2035 is that environment, development, and economic growth go hand in hand.

  4. Food and Agriculture: agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy as around 60% of Indians are dependent on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Agriculture provides food grains for feeding the population of over 1.2 billion. The vision document 2035 visualises the role of technology in agriculture in 2035.

  5. Global challenge issue: global warming has emerged as a serious issue for the world and its danger cannot be ignored. The aim is to ensure that these challenges are overcome with cooperation in technology and funding.

  6. Habitat: provision of safe and healthy shelter is a fundamental part of a person's physical, psychological, social and economic well being. The large Indian population in India lives either without shelter or under temporary shelters. Vision Document 2035 visualizer the role of technology to provide healthy housing facilities to all.

  7. Information and Communication: Information and Communication Technology has rapidly grown over the last 25 years and has impacted our lifestyles, the way we work and we will entertain. India has gained a lot from this sector and the ICT has impacted all the sectors such as education, medical Science, agriculture etc. The vision document aims to enhance our contribution towards driving in this Information and Communication Technology.

  8. Infrastructure: The coming decades are likely to see an accentuation of the two facets of the infrastructure facilities. On one hand, infrastructure will prove a vital tool for resolving the major challenges of economic growth, removing poverty, meeting basic needs etc. On the other hand the environmental pressures due to climatic conditions, congestion etc are likely to create tensions between for the infrastructural development and the quest for sustainability. The vision document 2035 visualizes the role of technology in India to deal with these challenges.

  9. Materials and manufacturing: materials contribute to the development of industry, infrastructure and a wide range of consumer goods. India has a comparative advantage in the area of materials due to significant resources, India infrastructure manufacturing capabilities etc. It is predicted that unprecedented discoveries of new materials will occur in the future, and thus TIFAC has identified Materials as one of the thematic areas under the technology vision document 2035.

  10. Medical Science and health care: To meet the goal of Healthy India and to reduce the disease burden due to changing lifestyle, the TIFAC has proposed a holistic approach under the Technology Vision 2035. It proposes a new Healthcare ecosystem better equipped to utilise the potential of technological innovations.

  11. Transportation: transportation acts as the foundation of the entire economy and links the national economy to the global economy. The technology vision 2035 brings new aspirations and the role of new innovative technologies in the transportation sector to meet future needs.

  12. Water: clean and safe water for all and to meet the needs of all the sectors has been an important goal of the nation. The existing technologies are neither adequate nor are able to solve the water crisis in terms of accessibility, quality, and availability. Technology vision 2035 aims to ensure management of water resources through the development of new technologies in a sustainable manner.

Advisory committees in the above 12 thematic areas have been formed to get compressive insights in these areas.

The technology vision 2035 has following Grand challenges in the field of Technologies

  • To guarantee nutrition security and eliminate female and child anemia.

  • To ensure the quality and quantity of water in all rivers and other aquatic bodies.

  • To develop commercially viable and decentralized distribution of energy for all.

  • To provide learner centric language neutral and holistic education for all.

  • To secure critical resources commensurate with the size of India.

  • To make India non-fossil fuel based economy.

  • To ensure Universal eco-friendly waste management system.

  • To take the railways to Leh and Tawang.

  • To understand the national climate patterns and ensure adaption to them.

  • To ensure location independent electoral and financial empowerment.

Classification of Technologies in vision document 2035

  • Technology Leadership: niche technologies in which India has core competencies, skilled manpower, infrastructure and a traditional knowledge base such as Nuclear Energy, Space Science.

  • Technology Independence: strategic technologies that India will have to develop on its own as they may not be obtainable from elsewhere such as the Defence sector.

  • Technology Innovation: link the disparate technologies together or make a breakthrough in one technology and apply it to another such as solar cells patterned on chlorophyll based synthetic pathway can be a potent future source of renewable energy.

  • Technology Adoption: obtain new technologies from elsewhere, and modify them as per the local needs and reduce dependence on other sources, for example, foreign collaboration in the sectors such as rainwater harvesting, agri-biotech, desalination, energy efficient buildings etc.

  • Technology Constraints: the areas where technology is threatening and problematic i.e. having a negative social or environmental impact because of serious legal and ethical issues, for example, the Genetically Modified(GM) Crops.

Call to action

The vision document gives the following ‘Call to Action’ to all the key stakeholders for long term sustainability of India's technological prowess:

  • Technical education institutions are to be engaged in large scale advanced research for path-breaking innovations.

  • Government should increase its financial support from current 1% to 2% of GDP.

  • Increase the number of full time equivalent scientists engaged in core research sector.

  • Private sector participation in investment and technologies which are readily deployable from lab to field for increasing efficiency in terms of Technology and economic returns.

  • Academy intelligentsia industry connection to be established through idea exchange, innovative curricular design based on the needs of the industrial sector, and through industry sponsored student internships and research fellowships.

  • Creation of research ecosystem for achieving translation of research technology to product/ processes by integrating students, entrepreneurs, and researchers.

National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020

The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) announced the first National Biotechnology Development Strategy in September 2007. In 2015, the department of biotechnology announced the National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-20 which was framed after consultation with all the key stakeholders. It was built on the earlier strategy to increase the growth in the biotechnology sector to make the biotechnology sector at par with global requirements. It aims to establish India as a world class biomanufacturing hub backed with significant investments for strong infrastructure for R&D, the creation of new biotech products and empowerment of India’s human resources scientifically and technologically.

Key elements of the national biotechnology development strategy 2015-20

  • To provide an impetus for utilising the life processes, knowledge and tools for the advantage of humanity.

  • launch a major well directed mission with significant investment for Biotech products, processes, and technologies for increasing the efficiency, productivity, safety of agriculture, food and nutrition, health and wellness, biofuel, environmental safety etc.

  • To scientifically and technologically empower India's human resource.

  • To establish India has a world class hup for bio-manufacturing for developed and developing markets.

  • To create a strong R&D infrastructure and ensure its commercialization for a robust economy.

Guiding principles of the strategy

  • Build a skilled workforce and leadership

  • Revitalize the knowledge environment at par with the bioeconomy

  • Enhancing  the opportunities for research in basic, disciplinary and interdisciplinary sciences

  • Encouraging the use-inspired Discovery and research

  • For inclusive development, focusing on biotechnology tools

  • Nurturing innovation, translational capacity, and entrepreneurship along with the commercialization of technology

  • Ensuring a regulatory system which is transparent, efficient and globally best, along with a proper communication strategy

  • Foster Global and National alliances for Biotechnology Corporation

  • To strengthen the institutional capacity by redesigning the governance models

  • Creating a matrix of measurement of processes and outcomes

Sectoral priorities

DBT has identified following sectors for accelerating growth in the biotechnology sector

  • Human Resource Development

  • Building Knowledge Environment

  • Research Opportunities in human genome research, vaccines,  stem cells & regenerative medicine, infectious & chronic disease biology, maternal & child health, bioengineering, and bio-design etc.

  • Agriculture sector, Animal Health, and their productivity

  • Medicinal plants and Aromatic plants

  • Fortification of food and biofortification

  • Bioprospecting, value-added biomass & their products

  • Marine biotechnology & biodiversity

  • Environment management, and Clean bio-energy

  • Nurture entrepreneurship – IP Landscaping, Technology Transfer, Entrepreneurship, Incubators, and SME Support Systems

  • Biotechnology and society

  • Biotechnology Cooperation

Major initiatives of National Biotechnology Development Strategy 2015-2020

  • To make India ready for meeting the challenge of achieving US$100bn by 2025

  • Launch four major missions in Clean Energy, Health Care, Education, and food and nutrition.

  • Create technology development and translation through global partnership. It includes 5 new biotech clusters, 40 biotech incubators, 150 TTOs, 20 bio-connect centers.

  • Ensuring strategic and focused investment to build human capital by setting up a Life Sciences and Biotechnology Education Council.

National Intellectual Property Rights policy

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) refers to the legal rights resulting from invention, innovation, and discovery in scientific, literary, artistic, and industrial sectors etc. IPRs entitle any individual or group to the economic and moral rights for their creation. IPRs gives protection to the original invention and ideas for a certain time limit and avoids its commercial exploitation by others.

The Government of India brought National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) policy, 2016 for promoting IPR Regime in India and for encouraging invention creativity and entrepreneurship in the country. The policy makes India's IPR policy TRIPS compliant through a legislative, administrative and judicial framework for safeguarding IPR for meeting the international obligations at the same time utilising the flexibility available under trips for developmental concerns.

Objectives of National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) policy

  • IPR awareness: To make all the sections of society aware of the economic, social and cultural benefits arising from the intellectual property rights.

  • Generation of IPRs: stimulating the generation of IPRs, R&D Institutions, Enterprises, Universities and Technical institutes etc.

  • Legal and legislative framework: having strong and effective implementation of IPR laws for balancing the rights of owners with the larger Public Interest.

  • Administration and management: modernizing and strengthening a service oriented IPR administration.

  • Commercialization of IPRs: To ensure that the owners of IPRs get its value through commercialization.

  • Enforcement and adjudication: strengthening the enforcement and the educated mechanism for dealing with infringements of IPR.

  • Human capital development: strengthening and expanding the human resources, institutions and capacities for research, skill building, teaching and training in IPRs.

Highlights of the policy

  • Department of industrial policy and promotion (DIPP) will act as the nodal department for coordinating, guiding and overseeing the implementation and future development of IPR in India. It will monitor the work done by other Ministries and departments for IPR.

  • The policy has a tagline of Creative India: Innovative India which aims to update the different intellectual property laws such as Indian cinematography act for removing inconsistencies.

  • The policy calls for financially supporting less empowered IP creators and owners such as weavers, farmers, and artisans through IP friendly loans from rural banks and cooperative banks.

  • The policy calls for IPR commercialization through financial support for developing IP assets by linking them with financial institutions such as venture capital funds, angel funds, crowd funding etc.

  • The IPR policy will be reviewed every five years in consultation with the stakeholders.

The policy will have several benefits such as fostering creativity and innovation in the country which would ultimately promote entrepreneurship leading to socio-economic development. It will promote the environment of protection of IPR which will ultimately help in technology advancements. The policy would also be helpful in promoting food security, enhancing affordable healthcare services through inventions, innovations, and discoveries in these sectors.

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