Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)
The Indian Education Commission popularly known as Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) was set up by the government of India on July 14, 1964, under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari Kothari. The objective of the Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) was to examine the different aspects of the education system in India.
The commission was assisted by experts from countries like UK, USA, USSR, UNESCO. The commission submitted the report on the Indian education system on 29th June 1966. The recommendations of the Kothari commission education reforms become part of national policy on education in 1968.
Recommendations of Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)
Provision of Free and Compulsory Education
The Kothari commission education reforms recommended for early fulfillment of the DPSP under article 45 of the Indian Constitution, which aimed to provide free and compulsory education for children between 6 to 14 years. It aimed to increase enrollment in schools to attend the desirable goal of free and compulsory education.
Remuneration and Conditions of Work of Teachers
- The Kothari commission education reforms recognized the importance of the role of teachers in the success of the education system in the country. Therefore the commission recommended adequate and satisfactory service conditions for the Teachers along with proper qualifications and responsibilities.
- The Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) recommended for academic freedom to teachers to allow them to publish independent studies and researches. Teachers were intended to be given the freedom to write about various National and international issues.
Kothari Commission and Language Education
- Commission report on regional languages: The Kothari commission and language education were important developments during this period. It recognized the importance of Indian language and literature for the educational and cultural development of Indians. It intended to spread knowledge through regional languages and to reduce the gap between the intelligentsia and the common people. It recommended taking urgent steps to promote regional language as a medium of education at the University stage which was already the part of primary and secondary education.
- Three language formula: The Kothari commission and language education intended for the adoption of three language formula by the state governments at the secondary stage. It intended to promote a modern Indian language, which was preferably to be any Southern language apart from Hindi and English in the Hindi speaking States. Hindi and English along with the regional language were to be the part of the non-Hindi speaking states in India. Hindi was intended to be developed as a link language and as a medium of expression for the composite culture of India.
- Sanskrit and international language: The commission recognized the importance of Sanskrit in the growth and development of Indian languages and its contribution to the cultural unity of the country. Therefore the commission recommended exploring the possibility of including Sanskrit for the study of Indian languages, history, ideology and Indian philosophy, etc. The commission emphasized the need to study international languages especially English in India. This was also aimed to promote study in science and technology in India.
Recommendation of commission to Reduce Regional Imbalance in Educational Facilities
Kothari Commission recommended for provision of educational facilities in the rural and backward areas. The commission recommended the adoption of a common School system in India. It intended to put sufficient emphasis on the education of girls to promote Social justice and social transformation. Special efforts were to be made for the development of education among backward classes and tribal people. It also had provisions for the education of physically and mentally handicapped children.
Recommendation of Kothari commission on Science Education
The commission recommended the promotion and acceleration of science education and research in India. Science and research were to be promoted for the growth of the national economy and society. It recommended for making science and mathematics an integral part of education during the first 10 years of scholastic education. It recommended for the provision of specimens, models, and charts about scientific education at every primary school. The higher primary schools were to have a laboratory-cum-lecture room.
Kothari Commission Recommendations for Agricultural and Industrial Education
It recommended for the development of at least one agricultural university in each state. To promote technical education, the provision of practical training in industries were to be made part of education. The commission recognized the need for continuous review of agricultural, industrial and technical manpower requirements of the country.
Kothari Commission for Secondary Education
- Kothari's commission for secondary education recognized educational opportunity at the secondary level as an important instrument to promote social transformation. it recommended ensuring proper facilities at the secondary stage to promote its proper development.
- Kothari's commission for secondary education recommended increasing the facilities for technical and vocational education at the secondary stage. It recommended for ensuring facilities for promotion of employment opportunities through vocational education. The link is important to make technical education effective at the secondary stage.
- The commission recommended covering vocational education in agriculture, trade, and Commerce, industry, health, home management, crafts, etc.
Kothari Commission Reducation Reforms for University Education
- The commission recognized the need for the provision of Laboratories, libraries, sufficient strength of teachers and other staff as the parameter to decide the number of students to be admitted to a college or university. It recognized the need for funds for setting up new universities.
- It recommended giving special attention to postgraduate courses and training and research. The commission recommended for the approach of clusters of centers to promote Research and training.
Kothari Commission Recommendations on Mass Education
The commission recognized the importance of Mass education for the proper functioning of democratic institutions and for promotion of production in agriculture, industry etc. It recommended the involvement of teachers and students to organize and promote literacy campaigns under the social and national service programs.
Kothari Commission Recommendations on the Educational Structure in India
- The committee highlighted the advantages of a uniform educational structure throughout the country. 10 + 2 + 3 was to be the pattern of educational structure in the country.
- The commission highlighted the need to increase the investment in education to reach a level of 6% of national income expenditure on education.
- The need for coordination between the states and the central government was also necessary for the development of education.
Other Important Recommendations of the Kothari Commission
- The Commissioner recognized the importance of quality of books in educational development. it recommended to avoid frequent changes in textbooks and to keep the prices of the books affordable for the students.
- It recommended improving the quality of examination to help the students to improve their level of achievement, rather than certifying the quality of their performance.
- It recognized the importance of games and sports in the physical fitness of the students. The commission recommended for nationwide program for physical fitness on priority basis.