First Round Table Conference (November 1930-January 1931)
The First Round Table Conference (November 1930-January 1931) was held in London. After the launch of civil disobedience movement by INC under the leadership of Gandhi and after his arrest there was widespread mass demonstrations and protests against the British. Therefore the British government felt the need to initiate talks with Indian leaders. Three round table conferences were held between 1930 to 1932 as per the report submitted by the Simon Commission in May 1930.
Aim of first round table conference
The major aim of first round table conference was to pacify the increasing tides of nationalism in India under the leadership of Gandhi and the Indian National Congress. The INC had launched Civil Disobedience movement which had alarmed various sections of British political leadership and therefore they felt the need to initiate talks with Indians. The other aim of first round table conference was to discuss about the constitutional reforms as per the report of the Simon Commission which was set up earlier by the British Government. One more aim of first round table conference was to create division between Indians by using the policy of divide and rule.
First round table conference held in 1930
First round table conference held in 1930 was inaugurated by King George V on November 12, 1930 in London. The conference was chaired by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald. Sixteen delegates representing the three political parties of Britain participated in the conference. From India, 58 political leaders and 16 members are representing the princely states participated in the conference. However, the leaders of Indian National Congress and business leaders did not participate in the first Round table conference.
The Main leaders from India who participated in the conference were
Muslim League: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Mohammed Shafi, Aga Khan
Hindu Mahasabha: B.S Monjee and M.R.Jayakar
Depressed classes: Dr BR Ambedkar, Rettamalai Srinivasan
Sikhs: Sardar Ujjal Singh
Discussions in the conference
Nine sub committees were set up to discuss the issues of Federal and provincial structure of government Ministries, Defence, North West Frontier Province, Burma, Franchise, Executive responsibility to the legislature etc. Except for the minority committee, the working of other committees went smoothly. The issue of rights of minorities was a matter where there was a lack of consensus. There was consensus on the idea of all India Federation, the idea of which was moved for discussion by Tej Bahadur Sapru. The idea of all India Federation was supported by all the groups who attended the First Round Table Conference.
The First Round Table conference held in 1930, ended on 19th January 1931. The principal on reforms that were agreed upon were hardly implemented. Also, the Congress party leaders carried on the civil disobedience movement during this period. After the conference, the Prime Minister of Britain, Ramsay MacDonald had expressed his hope about the participation of Indian National Congress in the Second Round Table Conference.
The First Round Table conference viceroy was Lord Irwin. After the end of first Round table conference, Tej Bahadur Sapru, C.Y. Chintamani and Srinivas Shastri appealed and tried to persuade Mahatma Gandhi to talk with the Viceroy Lord Irwin. The British Indian government released the political leaders of Congress to make a favourable environment for the talks between Gandhi and Lord Irwin.
|Montague-Chalmers Reforms and Government of India Act, 1919||Gandhi-Irwin Pact|
|Rowaltt Act||Evaluation of Civil Disobedience Movement|
|Emergence of Gandhi||Karachi Congress Session—1931|
|Gandhi in India||Second RTC and Second Civil Disobedience Movement|
|Gains from Champaran, Ahmadabad and kheda||Communal Award and Poona Pact|
|Satyagraha Against the Rowlatt Act - First Mass Strike||Gandhi’s Harijan Campaign|
|Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13,1919)||Strategic Debate|
|Khilafat and Non - Cooperation Movement||The First Stage Debate|
|Swarajists and No-Changers||Government of India Act, 1935|
|Revolutionary Terrorism During the 1920s||The Second Stage Debate|
|Growth of Communalism||28 Months of Congress Rule in Provinces|
|Anti-Simon Commission Upsurge||Freedom Struggle in the Princely states|
|Nehru Report||Role of Women in the Indian nationalist Movement|
|Civil Disobedience Movement||Role of Indian Capitalists in the National Movement|
|First Round Table Conference (November 1930-January 1931)|