Education Development of Technical Education
Education Development of Technical Education
The Education Development of technical education in India can be traced back to the British era of the 1840s. The need for civil engineering as a discipline for technical Technical Education was required for road and Canal projects. The Britishers first trained the overseers on the construction of roads, buildings, etc. Later on, they trained the lower grade technicians for the purpose of measuring and survey equipment required for various purposes.
Role of military engineers in the development of Technical-Vocational education in India
The engineers of British army played a major role in the development of technical education In India. Initially, when the East India Company gained political power, all the technical jobs in engineering and technology were done by the military engineers. The military engineers served in the Public Works Department etc.
The superintending engineers were mostly Britishers, while the lower craftsman and artisans were recruited from India. The British established Indian Ordnance factories and industrial schools in order to improve its efficiency. Later on, this played an important role in the development of technical-vocational education in India.
Historical development of Technical education
The historical development of technical education in India can be traced back to the establishment of College of Civil Engineering at Roorkee in 1847. It was established by the British in order to train the increasing demand of Civil Engineers in India. Pune engineering class and mechanical school or Overseers school was established in Pune in 1854 to provide training courses for the overseers for works in buildings, canals, dams etc.
In 1856, the Britishers established three engineering colleges in three British provinces. Calcutta College of civil engineering was established and Bengal Presidency. Overseers school of Pune established earlier became the College of engineering, Pune . The industrial school which was attached to the Gun Carriage Factory in the Madras Presidency was raised to the status of College of Engineering, Guindy .
The Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute was established in Bombay in 1887. The National Council of Education established the College of Engineering and Technology at Jadavpur in Bengal in 1906. The Indian Institute of Science was established by Sir Jamshedji Tata in 1911 at Bangalore. Between 1921 to 1937 several technical institutes such as The Indian school of mines, Dhanbad; the school of chemical Technology, Bombay etc were established in India. The Roorkee University act of 1947 was passed in 1948. It's status was raised and it became the first Technical University in India.
Development of Technical Education in India after Independence
- Indian government established five Indian Institute of Technology between 1950 and 1961 on the recommendations of Sarkar committee. This played a major role in the development of technical education in India after independence. S.Radhakrishnan committee which was appointed to examine the condition of Indian universities had recommended for the need of new types of engineering colleges and technical institutes to improve the quality of technically skilled employees in India.
- The commission had recommended for upgradation of engineering and technical colleges to promote postgraduate training and research. The commission had advocated for the independence of engineering colleges and reduction of control and dominance of their administration by the Indian government, for improving the development of technical education in india after independence.
- AICTE (All India Council for Technical Education) was established to provide advice related to technical education in India in 1945. It was made a statutory body in 1987. It played a major role in the development of technical education in india after independence. University grant commission was established by the UGC Act 1956. It allocated funds to the universities in India which also played a role in the development of technical education.
Role of education policy for the development of technical-vocational education
The national education policy of 1986, tried to address the various issues which were retarding the growth and quality of Engineering and technical education in India. In 2013, the government appointed TSR Subramanian committee to develop new education policy. The committee has given several recommendations for the development of technical-vocational education in India.