Education after independence in India
Education after Independence in India
After India got independence in 1947, the first important step taken by government for the improvement of education in India was the appointment of Radhakrishnan Commission in November 1948 to give a report on University education in India. The Radhakrishnan Commission submitted its report in August, 1949.
Recommendations of the University Education Commission
Recommendations on faculty in universities for the education in post independent India
The commission pointed out the important role of teachers in the education system, thus the adequate provision of well trained faculty with proper qualifications was necessary for the promotion of education in post independent india. The commission recommended about the proper care which should be taken for the selection of professors, lecturers, instructors and about their remuneration. It recommended for the provision of research fellows in every University. The rules regarding the provident fund, leave and the hours of work etc was to be followed by the universities.
Recommendations of this education commission in independent India on the teaching standards
- It recommended for 12 years of pre-university education before entry into universities.
- It recommended for establishment of sufficient number of intermediate colleges for classes IX to XII or XI to XII.
- The committee gave three major objectives for the higher education
- Central education
- Liberal education
- Occupational education
- The committee recommended for diverting the students after 10 to 12 years of Pre-University education to different vocational subjects in large number of occupational institutes. It was an important step to promote vocational education by this education commission in independent india.
- To avoid problems of overcrowding the maximum number of students of teaching University was to a fixed at 3000 and for the affiliated colleges it was 1500.
- This education commission in independent india recommended for increasing the number of working days for a minimum of 180 days in a year. It recommended for three terms of about 11 weeks each.
- The attendance was made compulsory for the undergraduate students and private candidates participation was made limited for only certain categories of public examination on the recommendations of this education commission in independent india
- University libraries were intended to be improved with large annual grants and by introduction of the open access system.
- It recommended to raise the standard of education in universities, and University education was to be placed in the concurrent list.
- It recommended for setting up the University Grants Commission to look after the universities in India.
- English as a medium for higher education was not recommended to be removed in haste.
- In places where the federal language and mother tongue were different, the federal language was to be made the medium of education. WHere the federal language and mother tongue was same the students were recommended to take up a classical or modern Indian language.
Recommendations on research and training in the education policy in India after independence
The commission recommended for making the master of Arts and Master of Science uniform across all the universities of India. This education policy in india after independence made provision for large number of scholarships to promote research work in the universities by the Ministry of Education. Fundamental research was to be promoted in the universities by this education policy in india after independence.
Recommendations of this education commission in independent India on professional education
This education commission in independent india recommended to divide the professional education into 5 aspects- agriculture education, commercial education, engineering and technology, medical education and the Legal education.
Recommendations of this education commission in independent India on Student Welfare
The committee recommended for physical examination of students during admission and at least once in a year afterwards. Provision of Health Services and Hospital was to be made in the universities. Sanitary inspection of universities was to be done. All the Students were to receive the NCC training.
Recommendations of this education commission in independent India on women education
Same facilities were to be provided to the women colleges and Universities as provided to the men's colleges and the universities.
Recommendations for the finance of Universities
For finance, the central government was given the responsibility to promote higher education in india. University Grant Commission was given the responsibility for allocation of grants to the universities and promote education in india. UGC was constituted in 1953 and was given statutory status in 1956 by an act of Indian Parliament.
Rural Universities and colleges to promote education in India
The committee proposed to setup rural colleges and Universities to fulfill the educational requirements of rural people and fulfill the needs of education in india. The rural universities were to be set up by taking Shantiniketan and Jamia Millia as their models.
Later the Government of India set up Kothari Commission (1964- 66) to advise the government on education in india which was assisted by the experts from UK, USSR, USA and UNESCO etc.