Development of Vernacular

Development of Vernacular Education

The condition of vernacular education during the British Raj who was not good in India. The development of vernacular education during the early 19th century was mainly dependent on the contributions from the rich zamindars.

Development of Vernacular Education in 1835, 1836 and 1838

A report on the condition of Development of Vernacular Education in Bengal and Bihar was given by the William Adams report. It pointed out the prevalence of various defects in the system of vernacular education in Bihar and Bengal. However, the Macaulay's minute of 1835 had settled the language dispute in the favor of Anglicists for the promotion of English which neglected the development of vernacular education.

Vernacular Education between 1843- 53

In the North West province, James Jonathan did some efforts for the development of vernacular schools. He was the Lieutenant Governor of the North West Frontier province, and he played an important role in the opening of one model government school in each Tehsildari along with a normal School intended to provide training to teachers for the Vernacular schools.

Development of Vernacular Education during 1853- 54

  • The then governor general, Lord Dalhousie had expressed his views in the favor of development of vernacular education in India in a famous minute.
  • In 1854, Charles wood prepared a dispatch for the educational development in India. It had following provisions for the development of vernacular education:
    • It recommended for Improving the standard of vernacular education by providing for systemized hierarchy from Vernacular primary schools in the villages, Anglo Vernacular high Schools and colleges at the district levels and affiliating Universities in the presidency towns at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
    • Supervision of education provided by the government agencies.
    • Provision of normal schools for the purpose of teacher training.
  • All these efforts gave impetus to the cause of development of vernacular language in India.

Vernacular education between 1854-71

  • During this period the British government had given some attention for the development of vernacular education. There was five fold increase in the total number of vernacular schools in the country.

Role of Hunter Commission in the Development of Vernacular Language

The Hunter Commission highlighted the role of vernacular education for the promotion of Mass education. The commission held that the government should take special steps for the expansion and promotion of vernacular education. It recommended to provide Mass education through the Vernacular languages. It played an important role in the development of vernacular language in India.

Developments in the vernacular education in 1904

The education policy of 1904 had put some special emphasis for the promotion of vernacular education. It also increased the amount of grants given for its development.

The Hartog committee of 1929: It had given a gloomy picture about the situation of primary education in the country.

Wardha scheme of basic education 1937: 

The Wardha scheme of basic education had given focus on the development of vernacular languages extensive in India. It recommended for nationwide free and compulsory education for first 7 years in the mother tongue. The Sargent plan of 1944 also recommended for the promotion of vernacular language at the primary stage which was influenced by the Gandhi's Wardha scheme of basic education. After independence, the development of vernacular language and vernacular education were influenced by the Wardha scheme of basic education.

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