UPSC General Studies Syllabus 2020 for Civil Services Mains Exam

UPSC General Studies Syllabus 2020 -  UPSC has provided the detailed syllabus for IAS mains exam in the notification for all four General Studies Papers. Candidates preparing for the civil services exam should be aware of UPSC GS Syllabus so that candidates get an idea of the IAS mains exam. Also, the UPSC General Studies syllabus will become handy for current affairs preparation.

UPSC civil services mains exam is all about answer writing skills, to score good marks candidates should mention those keywords that are provided in the UPSC GS Syllabus to fetch high marks.

In this article, we have provided the elaborate UPSC General Studies Syllabus Paper wise and subject wise to help your IAS exam preparation.

UPSC General Studies Syllabus 2020 - GS Paper 1 

Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present - significant events, personalities, issues
  • The Freedom Struggle - its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawing of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc. their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women's organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems, and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of the world's Physical Geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location - changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

Read More: UPSC GS Paper 1 Preparation Strategy for IAS Exam


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UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus Topics Subject wise

The detailed syllabus topics of GS Paper 1 for the UPSC exam are provided subject wise. The subject topics of the GS Paper 1 syllabus include Indian Art and Culture, Indian History, World History, Indian Society, World Geography and Indian Geography.

GS Paper 1 syllabus is mostly static and most of the questions asked in the exam are conceptual understanding and candidates' command over the subject. 

Here we have provided the elaborate syllabus topics for each subject in GS Paper 1 syllabus below.

UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus - Indian Art and Culture

In the GS paper 1 syllabus, every year 2-3 questions are asked from Indian Art and Culture topics in the IAS exam. Most of the questions are asked from NCERT textbooks. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 1 Indian Art and Culture Syllabus topics from UPSC General Studies Syllabus below:

Indian Paintings

Temple Architecture

Dance Forms - Classical, Folk

Cave and  Rock-cut Architecture

Classical and Hindustani Music 

Indo-Islamic Architecture

Puppetry, Pottery, Drama/Theatre, Martial Arts

Buddhist Architecture

Indian Literature - Ancient to Modern

Colonial and Modern Architecture

Harappan Architecture

Read More: Download Indian Art and Culture Study material notes

UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus - Modern History

In the GS paper 1 syllabus, every year 3-4 questions are asked from Modern History topics in the IAS mains exam. Most of the questions will test the candidates' overall understanding ability of the Indian National movement and able to address the demand of the questions asked in the UPSC exam. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 1 Indian Modern History Syllabus topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

The Decline of the Mughal Empire

The Revolt of 1857

Indian States and Society in the 18th Century

Administrative Changes after 1858

The Beginnings of European Settlements

Economic Impact of the British Rule

The British Conquest of India

Growth of new India- the Nationalist Movement 1858-1905

Structure of the Government and the Economic Policies of the British Empire in India, 1757-1857

Growth of Militant Nationalism & Revolutionary Activities (1905-1918)

Social and Cultural Awakening in the first half of the 19th Century

Beginning of Mass Nationalism (1919-1939)

Towards Freedom & Partition (1939-1947)

Read More: Get Modern History Study material Notes

UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus - Post-Independence India

In GS paper 1 syllabus, every year 1-2 questions are asked from Post-Independence India topics in IAS exam.

Here we have listed GS Paper 1 Indian Modern History Syllabus topics from UPSC General Studies Syllabus below:

Partition and Its Aftermath 

Planned Economy

Integration of Princely States

Industrial Policy and LPG Reforms

Reorganization of States

Indian Polity Post Independence

India Foreign Policy - NAM, Pachasheel, Nuclear Policy

Social Issues - Communalism, Naxalism

Land Reforms and Agricultural Revolutions

UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus - World History

In GS paper 1 syllabus, every year 1-2 questions are asked from Modern History topics in the IAS exam. Most of the questions are asked to test the basic understanding of the world-historical events. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 1 World History Syllabus topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

Industrial Revolution from Renaissance to rising of Capitalism

World War II - Causes to After effects of War

World War 1 - Causes, consequences, and formation of the League of Nations

Decolonization & Redrawal of National Boundaries

World Between the Two Wars - Fascism & Nazism, Great Depression, Emergence of the Soviet Union, the US as a Superpower.

Concept, Types & Social Impact of Political Philosophies - Communism, Capitalism, Socialism

UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus - Indian Society 

In the GS paper 1 syllabus, every year 4-5 questions are asked from Indian Society topics in IAS exam.

Here we have listed GS Paper 1 Indian Society Syllabus topics from UPSC General Studies Syllabus below:

Diversity based on caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture)

Problem of Rising Urban Poverty Poverty Alleviation Initiatives

Unity in Diversity

Urbanization Trends in India and Their Implications - Demographics and Social Dimensions

Inequality and Exclusion

Urbanization - Factors, Problems, Social Consequences

Family System

Impact of Urbanisation in Rural Areas and Slum Problems

Women's Organisations

Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)

Women Social Reform Movements

Globalization - Factors and Impact

Contemporary Women's Issues & Organisation Response

Impact of Globalisation on India - Socio-cultural, economic, on women, agrarian sector etc.

SHGs

Social Empowerment - Dimensions and Government Initiatives

Demography and Population Trends in India

Communalism - Causes, Consequences, Measures to control and eradicate communalism

Demographic Dividend and Population Aging

Regionalism - Concept, Forms, causes, consequences, measures to contain

India's Population Policy & Initiatives

Secularism in India - Concept, Indian Model of Secularism, Practice of Secularism and Challenges faced

Poverty in India - Causes, types, measurement, consequences

Uniform Civil Code

UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus - World Geography

In the GS paper 1 syllabus, every year 5-7 questions are asked from Geography syllabus topics in the IAS mains exam. In the Geography section, candidates may expect some current issues based questions too. The only section in GS Paper1 syllabus where there is scope to ask current affairs based questions apart from conceptual questions 

Here we have listed GS Paper 1 World Geography Syllabus topics for IAS Mains exam below:

Universe - Theories, Formation and recent developments

The hydrosphere - Ocean relief, Salinity, Ocean currents, Ocean deposits and resources 

Basic idea about Earth - motion of the Earth, Inclination of earth axis and seasons, Eclipses, Tides and its effects 

Biosphere - Major Biomes, Flora and fauna, Conservation of Biodiversity

Geomorphology - Exogenic and Endogenic movements, Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Theories - Continental Drift theory, Plate tectonics, seafloor spread theory

Economic geography

Interior of the earth - Lithosphere and its composition

Land Resources, Forest Resources, Water Resources

Mass Movements of landforms, erosion and deposits

Agricultural, Mineral and Energy Resources

Rock system and Classification of Rocks

Factors Responsible for the Location of Industries

Climatology - atmosphere, temperature distribution, Clouds, precipitation, Pressure Belts, Winds, Cyclones, Jet Streams, Ozone layer

Geographical Features and their Location

Read More: Download GS Geography Study material notes

UPSC GS Paper 1 Syllabus - Indian Geography

Here we have listed GS Paper 1 Indian Geography Syllabus topics from UPSC GS Syllabus for mains below:

Basics of Indian Geography - latitude, longitude, boundaries, etc

Soils in India

Physical features of India - Himalaya, Pleateu, plains, desert and Islands

Agriculture and Allied-characteristics and Problems

Indian River systems – Characteristics, comparison and significance

Natural vegetation and fauna - Classification, Biodiversity, National Parks, Biosphere reserves, etc 

Climate in India - Monsoon, El-Nino, La-Nino, seasons, Cyclones

Rainfall distribution in India

Mineral and industries in India

Economic infrastructure - Transportation, Energy resources.

Agriculture and Problems faced in India

Human Geography - Demographics, Census data

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UPSC General Studies Syllabus 2020 - GS Paper 2

(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues, and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs disputes redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
  • Parliament and State Legislatures - structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization, and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of the People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions, and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency, and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India s interests.
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies, and fora- their structure, mandate.

Read More: UPSC GS Paper 2 Preparation Strategy for IAS Exam

UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus Topics Subject wise

The detailed syllabus topics of GS Paper 2 for the UPSC exam are provided subject wise. The subject topics of GS Paper 2 syllabus include Indian Polity, Governance, Social Justice, International Relations.

GS Paper 2 syllabus is mostly dynamic and most of the questions asked in the mains exam are current affairs oriented. 

Here we have provided the elaborate syllabus topics for each subject in GS Paper 2 syllabus below.

UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus - Indian Polity and Constitution

In GS paper 2 syllabi, every year 4-6 questions are asked from Indian Polity and Constitution topics in the IAS exam. Most of the questions will test candidates' overall understanding ability of the Indian Constitution and recent developments, issues happening on Polity syllabus topics. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 2 Indian Polity and Constitution topics from UPSC General Studies Syllabus below:

Preamble - Features, Amendment and Committees

State Government - Governor, CM, Council of Ministers, State Legislature and Union Territories

Constitution of India - Historical Background, Drafting committee and the making of the Constitution

Administration of Special Areas - Schedule 5 and 6

Union and its Territory - State reorganization, Federal nature

Constitution Bodies

Citizenship - PIO, NRI, OCI and Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, Citizenship Amendment Act and Recent Developments

Non-Constitution Bodies

Fundamental Rights (FR) - Important Amendments, Writs and recent developments related to FRs

Tribunals

Fundamental Duties (FD) - Significance and Criticism

Special Provisions to SC, ST, Minorities, Backward Class, Anglo-Indians

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) - Features, Classification and Popular SC Judgements and Important Amendments related to DPSP

Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme With That of Other Countries Parliament & State Legislatures

Union Government - President, Vice President, PM, Council of Ministers, Parliament, Attorney General

Ministries and Departments of the Government

Judiciary - Supreme Court, High court, appointment and removal procedures

Pressure Groups & Formal/informal Associations & Their Role in Polity

Emergency Provisions

Salient Features of Representation of People's Act

Centre-State Relations and Interstate relations

Appointment to Various Constitutional Posts

Panchayati Raj and municipalities

Statutory, Regulatory & Quasi-Judicial Bodies - NITI, RBI, NHRC, CBI, CVC, NIC and many other

Read More: Important Indian Polity topics notes

UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus - Governance

In GS paper 2 syllabus, every year 3-5 questions are asked from Governance topics in IAS mains exam. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 2 Governance topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

Government Policies on Health, Gender, Education, Poverty, and Economic Development

Aspects of Transparency

Government Policy Implementation Issues

Elements & Types of Accountability

Popular Government Schemes like MGNERGA, Skill India, Make in India, Digital India and many other

Citizens Charters (CC) - Components, Features, Case Studies

Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) - Role and Impact in India

Means to ensure Transparency & Accountability - 

Self Help Groups (SHGs) - Need, issues, challenges

RTI, Whistleblower Protection Bill, Lokpal & Lokayuktas Act

Societies, Trusts and Cooperatives

Relationship Between Civil Service And Democracy

Governance - Aspects, Good Governance, Barriers and other dimension of Governance

Role Played By Civil Services

E-Governance - applications, Models, Successes, Limitations, Potential

Reforming Bureaucracy to Strengthen Democracy


UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus - Social Justice

In GS paper 2 syllabus, every year 3-5 questions are asked from Social Justice topics in IAS exam. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 2 Social Justice topics from  UPSC General Studies Syllabus below:

Welfare Schemes for SCs - Protection of Civil Rights Act, SC/ST Protection Act, National Commission for Scheduled Castes

Welfare Schemes for STs - National Commission for STs, TRIFED, Forest Rights Act

Welfare Schemes for Disabled - Rehabilitation Council of India Act, PWD Act,  National Trust for Welfare of Persons, PWD Rights

Welfare Schemes for Minorities - National Commission for Minorities and Religious and Linguistic Minorities

Welfare Schemes for Women and Children - Domestic Violence Act, PC&PNDT Act, POCSO Act, CARA, Child Marriage Act, Child Marriage Act, Domestic Violence Act and other schemes

Welfare Schemes for Elderly

Health Issues, Government Initiatives and Schemes on Health, Policy, Health Mission, Universal Health Coverage and other aspects of Health sector in India

Education in India - Status, Challenges, reforms, Government Programmes, Reports on Indian Education

Issues Relating to Poverty & Hunger


UPSC GS Paper 2 Syllabus - International Relations

In GS paper 2 syllabus, every year 4-6 questions are asked from International Relations topics in the IAS exam. Most of the questions are derived from current issues and newspaper analysis, to score good marks in this section, candidates should focus more on newspaper reading.

Here we have listed GS Paper 2 International relation topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

India and its Neighborhood – Relations - China, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Srilanka Maldives, Myanmar

Effect of Policies - One Belt One Road, UN Reforms, WTO, Breixt, South China Sea Dispute and other major international issues

Major Foreign Policy Doctrines Since 1947

Indian Diaspora

Bilateral Relations - US, Russia, Japan, Asian, Africa, European Countries, Australia, Latin America 

Important International Institutions - UN, WTO, World Bank, IMF, WEF 

Regional & Global Groupings - SAARC, BRICS, SCO, BIMSTEC, ASEAN, MGC, G-20 and other major groupings

UPSC General Studies Syllabus 2020 - GS Paper 3 

(Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System - objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India - scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology - developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

Read More: UPSC GS Paper 3 Preparation Strategy for IAS Exam

UPSC GS Paper 3 Syllabus Topics Subject wise

The detailed syllabus topics of GS Paper 3 for UPSC exam are provided subject wise. The subject topics of GS Paper 3 syllabus include Indian Economy, Science and Technology, Biodiversity and Environment, Security.

GS Paper 3 syllabus is mostly dynamic as GS Paper 2, most of the questions asked in the IAS exam are current affairs oriented. 

Here we have provided the elaborate syllabus topics for each subject in GS Paper 3 syllabus below:

UPSC GS Paper 3 Syllabus - Indian Economy and Economic Development

In GS paper 3 syllabi, every year 6-8 questions are asked from Indian Economy topics in the IAS mains exam. Most of the questions will test candidates' overall understanding ability of Indian Economy and recent developments, issues happening on Economic Development syllabus topics. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 3 - Indian Economy and Economic Development topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

Economics Basics - Different Types of Economy, Sectors in Economy, GDP, GNP, Subsidies and National Income

Indian Financial Market

Economic Growth and Economic Development

Banking in India

Evolution of Indian Economy 

Insurance in India

Economic Planning and Planning in Indian Economy (FYPs, NDC, NITI Aayog)

Security Market in India

Economic Reforms - LPG era

External Sectors in India

Inflation and its impacts

International Economic Organisations

Agriculture and Food Management in India

Tax Structure in India

Industries and Infrastructure in India

Public Finance in India 

Service Sector

Human Development in India

Read More: Get GS Indian Economy Study material notes

UPSC GS Paper 3 Syllabus - Science and Technology

In GS paper 3 syllabus, every year 3-5 questions are asked from Science and Technology topics in IAS exam. Questions are asked from recent scientific developments and India’s achievement in the science and technology field. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 3 - Science and Technology topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

General Science - Basics of Physics and Biology (Class 10 level)

Nuclear technology and Particle Physics

Biotechnology - Definition, types, GM foods 

Electronics

Information Technology - Evolution and Generations

Robotics

Nanotechnology - Definitions, Types and Applications

Energy

Space Technology - Orbits, Types of Satellites, Cryogenic engines

Important Indian Scientists and Their Achievements

Telecommunication Technology 

Governmental initiatives in fields of S&T

Defence technology

Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights - Need, Types, International Agreements, GI Tag

Read More: Get Science and Technology study material notes

UPSC GS Paper 3 Syllabus - Biodiversity and Environment

In GS paper 3 syllabus, every year 3-6 questions are asked from Biodiversity and Environment topics in the exam. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 3 - Biodiversity and Environment topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

Biodiversity - Types, significance, conservation techniques and how to reduce loss of Biodiversity 

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Pollution - Types, causes, Impact and Prevention

Disaster Management - Types of Disasters, Government Initiatives

Read More: Download GS Environment Study Material notes

UPSC GS Paper 3 Syllabus - Security

In GS paper 3 syllabus, every year 4-6 questions are asked from Security topics in mains exam. Questions are asked from recent developments and issues pertaining to India’s internal and external security. 

Here we have listed GS Paper 3 - Security topics from UPSC GS Syllabus below:

Development & Spread of Extremism - Factors and steps to reduce

Challenges in Managing Social Media

Naxalism

Cyber Security and Cyber Warfare 

Role of External State in Internal Security - J&K Separatism, Left Wing Extremism North East Insurgency

Money-Laundering & its Prevention

Reasons for Spread of Terrorism

Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas

State Sponsored Terrorism

Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism

Institutional Framework for Internal Security - NIA, NATGRID, TADA, POTA and other acts and agencies

Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate - CAPF, Paramilitary, Intelligence Agencies

Role of Media & Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges

UPSC General Studies Syllabus 2020 - GS Paper IV (Ethics)

(Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)

This paper will include questions to test the candidates attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem-solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

Read More: UPSC GS Paper 4 Preparation Strategy for IAS Exam

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