Sociology Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 8 - Question 4
90 Days Sociology Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 02-Jan-2019
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02-Jan-2019 - Question 2
Bring out some positive and negative consequences of green revolution. How has green revolution changed the rural social structure?(2012)(250 words)
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The Green Revolution had transformed India into food surplus country. The word ‘green’ here refers to green fields of the country and ‘revolution’ indicated substantial change. Various sociologists have studied the consequences of Green Revolution and have given valuable insights.
i)The prime objective of Green Revolution was fulfilled. India became self-reliant in foodgrains production.
ii)It was highly successful at national level i.e. at macro level. It raised the agricultural production significantly.
iii)It has solved the problem of hunger and provided strong base to the Indian economy for further growth.
iv)It created entrepreneurial spirit among farmers. Andre Beteille has stated that it has indeed created a new faith in the dynamism of Indian farmers.
v)It has led to the creation of ‘middle class’ in villages.
vi)There is increase in awareness level, education and political empowerment.
However, the impact of this programme has not been uniform across all the areas. Also, it has not been equally favourable for all sections of agrarian population. Though it was successful at macro level yet there are lot of variations at micro level. Various scholars have highlighted the negative consequences. These are given as follows:
i)The rich farmers are enjoying the fruit of increased profits but the real wage rate for agricultural labourers has been declining.
ii)There has been perpetuation of regional imbalance in growth.
iii)The new technology and other inputs such a fertilizers, pesticides etc are beyond the reach of small and marginal farmers.
iv)There has been negative impact on soil health and environment due to the excess use of fertilizers and pesticides. Vandana Shiva considers that Green Revolution has led to an ecological disaster.
v)Nivedita Menon finds out that Green Revolution has led to the withdrawal of women from labour force. Once the family becomes prosperous, women are considered ‘Izzat’ of the family.
vi)Gill has presented in his study that zamindars were the major beneficiaries. He highlighted that small farmers gradually surrendered their land to big famers due to high input cost.
Such a scenario has brought significant changes in rural social structure. New class of capitalist farmers has emerged and middle class phenomenon emerged in villages.
Agrarian class structure-
a)Daniel Thorner has talked about three classes such as
-Malik: Those who have large landholdings
-Kisan: Medium farmers
-Mazdoor: Landless workers
b)Kathleen Gough has classified rural social structure into following two classes:
In some situations, they have been converted to bonded labourers as well.
c)Dipankar Gupta has talked about following classes in rural social structure:
Thus, various sociologists have looked at rural social structure from their own perspective and presented their viewpoints. Despite different nomenclature, it is certain that the poor peasants, sharecroppers and landless agricultural labourers have not been able to share profitably in the general prosperity which came in the wake of Green Revolution. The social index has not been changed in the same proportion as that of agricultural production.