Sociology Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 8 - Question 3
90 Days Sociology Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 02-Jan-2019
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02-Jan-2019 - Question 1
Write short note on strategies of rural development.(2004)(150 words)
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The concept of rural development is very broad. It embraces all those programmes that touch the lives of people residing in villages. For example- agriculture, irrigation, education, health, transportation and communication, social welfare etc.
The strategies for rural development in India can be categorized in following phases:
1.First phase of rural development-
Community Development Programme- It looked at village as a common community. This programme was launched on 2nd Oct 1952. The following were the activities undertaken by the CDP:
i)Constructional programmes- Kutcha and pucca roads, drains, pavement of streets, school buildings etc.
ii)Irrigational programmes-Wells, pumping sets, tanks etc.
iii)Agricultural programmes-Reclamation, soil conservation, consolidation of holdings, improved seeds etc.
iv)Institutional and other programmes-Youth clubs, women’s organization, community centres, cooperative societies, dispensaries etc.
2.Second phase of rural development-
i)Land reforms-The prime objective was to bring social justice within agrarian system and to eliminate the elements of exploitation.
ii)Green Revolution-The objective was to bring self-reliance in agricultural production. High yielding varieties were introduced to increase the production which increased the agricultural production significantly.
3.Third phase of rural development-
i)Area development programmes:
-Drought prone area programme
-Hill area development programme
-Command area development programme
ii)Programmes meant for specific groups and areas:
-20 point programme
-National rural employment scheme
-Indira Awas Yojna
-Various poverty alleviation programmes
4.Right based approach-
-National Food Security Act
In the initial years after independence, welfare approach was followed. There has been focus on uplifting specific groups. Then, gradually there has been shift towards rights based framework and demand driven approach for rural development. The role of PRIs is very crucial for rural development.