Sociology Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 8 - Question 2

90 Days Sociology Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 31-Dec-2018

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.

2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

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31-Dec-2018 - Question 2

Describe the impact of land reforms on the peasants of Indian society.(2014)(250 words)

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Model Answer

In pre-British period, there was no ownership of land. During British period, commodification of land was done. Colonial govt introduced new land tenure systems such as Permanent settlement, Ryotwari system etc.  These systems were exploitative in nature and the condition of those at lower rungs was very deteriorable.

After independence, land reforms were introduced by the govt. The impact of land reforms was not uniform across the states. In some states, these met with partial success whereas in some others these were unsuccessful. There were both positive as well as negative impacts which are given as following:

Positive impact-

i)C Bell, Anand Chakraborty and K L Sharma have studied villages of Rajasthan. They found that land reforms have created ‘middle class’ in these villages. There has been consciousness among villagers and there has been shift of power from upper class into the hands of middle class.

ii)Dipankar Gupta studied Green revolution areas in western UP. He found that because of the presence of some political leaders (political as well as non-political), western Uttar Pradesh has been highly prosperous. Level of awareness among people is high. For example- Bhatta Parsaul village movement- Land was taken over by UP govt and compensation paid was inadequate. The leaders like Ch. Charan Singh and Mahendra Singh Tikait have played a crucial role. Because of them, caste differences diluted and middle class identity became more important among people and the movement became successful.

In general, we could say that in areas of successful land reforms, the level of awareness, education, political empowerment etc have increased.

Negative impact-

i)P C Joshi has highlighted the negative consequences associated with land reforms. Landlords manipulated with their property and kept most of the land with themselves. They only surrendered infertile land. Benami transactions were also done.

ii)There has been dissatisfaction among farmers. In a survey, it was found that in 1975-76, the contribution of agriculture in rural economy was 66.8%. However, by 2000, it dropped to 55.2%. People were moving towards other sectors. This shows their dissatisfaction with agriculture sector.

iii)Naxalbari movement has been rooted in poor implementation of land reforms.

iv)The income inequality has been further increased.

Yogendra Singh has stated that there has been a wide gap between land-reform ideology projected during freedom struggle and even thereafter and the actual measures introduced for land reforms. This gap is the result of class character of politicians and administrative elite. The economic prosperity of the rich peasantry has increased but the economic condition of the small peasants has deteriorated. Agricultural workers have not received the benefits of land reforms. The contemporary trend of class transformation in the villages involves ‘embourgeoisement’ of some and ‘proletarianisation’ of many.

Note: There is no template for a correct UPSC answer, the model answer is only for your reference

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