Sociology Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 10 - Question 6
90 Days Sociology Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 18-Jan-2019
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18-Jan-2019 - Question 2
Comment on the factors behind changing status of women in urban India.(2016)(250 words)
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The status of women has been the central concern of many reform movements before and after independence. Leaders of Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj etc were concerned with issues like sati, remarriage, divorce, female education, polygamy and dowry. The change in the status of women got further impetus after independence because of the enactment of new laws (Special Marriage Act, 1954, Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, Hindus Succession Act 1956 and Anti Dowry Act 1961).
The following are the factors behind changing status of women in urban India:
i)Effect of western education and the concept of complementary sex roles.
- ii) Rise of the middle class and emphasis on women’s education.
iii)Leadership provided by educated elite women and interest of male social reformers in changing social practices sanctioned by religion.
iv)Changing socio-religious attitudes and philosophies and decreasing social hostility and opposition of males to women’s associations engaged in self help activities.
v)Declaration of 1975-85 as the international women’s decade also gave impetus to women’s movements and was instrumental in removing the notion of the sense of inferiority of women.
vi)After 1991 reforms, economic opportunities for women have expanded tremendously.
vii)There is emphasis on family planning and nuclear families are becoming more common these days. In small families, women are able to maintain balance between personal and professional life.
viii)Urbanisation and industrialization have led to increase in migration towards cities. The ‘new life’ in city has altered the family relations.
- ix) Women also share the responsibility of making the major family decisions with her husband or father.
x)Various laws and govt schemes for women empowerment.
Job opportunities outside the family, economic hardship and social situation have encouraged women to take up employment outside the family. The attitudes of women’s relatives towards women’s education and employment as well as women’s own preference for employment are now quite different from earlier beliefs. Such a scenario has led to the improvement of status of women in urban India. However, still there is a long way to go.
It is true that women are empowered in contemporary times, however, glass ceiling phenomenon is still present. There are pink colour occupations. Even if women are employed outside, they are still expected to perform the household duties. Childcare is still considered women only task. Such a patriarchal thinking is still ingrained in our societal fabric which acts as hindrance towards gender equality. However, we together as society are striving for it.