Science and Technology for UPSC

Science and Technology is an important part of UPSC syllabus for GS Paper 1 in Prelims and GS Paper III in Mains exam. It includes static as well as dynamic concepts from subjects such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Bio-Technology, Defence, Space etc. primarily related to the Indian context. 

To approach and attempt questions in Science and Technology, aspirants must get a hold on its basics first and then move on to current affairs i.e. the ongoing developments, research initiatives, policies etc. which will help in analyzing and answering the questions being asked in the exam currently.

Indian Science and Tech

Science and Technology have been the major drivers of economic development globally. India understood it very early in its development approach that a mighty nation cannot be built without a strong foundation in science and technology. Early on after the independence, India laid the foundation of great institutions such as CSIR, IITs, Space Institutes and promoted a strong policy-driven approach to in science and technology to keep the economy moving forward.

spaceIndia decided to go to space when the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was set up by the Government of India in 1962. With the visionary Dr Vikram Sarabhai at its helm. ISRO Superceded INCOSPAR in 1969. The visionary Vikram Sarabhai provided the initial thrust and leadership to utilize space research to solve the problem of the common man. 

This is how India's space research started and today ISRO is the sixth largest space agencies in the world.

Information and Technology

ICTInformation and Technology have changed the world as never before. It has enhanced the human ability to communicate more efficiently and easily. The developments in IT has been profound for the Indian economy with India becoming the IT BackOffice for the world economy. The field of IT is ever developing and new research is going to change the face of global business and society in a fundamental way.


BiotechBiotechnology is an interdisciplinary domain which uses the understanding of the biological process, organisms, cell or cellular component to solve some of the pressing issues of humanity. The Research in Biotechnology has the potential to provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, use less and cleaner energy, and have safer, cleaner and more efficient industrial manufacturing processes.


Nuclear Technology 

nuclear powerNuclear technology harnesses the energy stored in the nucleus of atoms. This tremendous source of energy was first used to generate electric power in the 1950's and science then nuclear technology has advanced to become one of the major sources of power in the world. India started research in nuclear technology soon after independence and gain sufficient maturity to apply the indigenous technology to start a nuclear power plant in India. Currently, Nuclear power in India is the fourth-largest source of electricity after thermal, hydroelectric, and renewable sources of electricity.

Electronics and Telecommunication

ETElectronics and communication technology has revolutionised the world of computing and computing devices. Constant research in the field has made it possible to access computing technology by billions of people. Smartphone has changed the way people interact and do business. Further research in 3 D technology, Animation, Artificial Intelligence is going to be the key driver of the economy and society in the coming decades.


nanotechNanotechnology is the application of science, Technology and engineering at the nanoscale. The field of nanotechnology is new but quite promising. Using nanotechnology we modify the material property in a fundamental which can then be used to solve some of the pressing issues in society. Nanotechnology is going to rule the field of scientific research in the 21st century encompassing almost all the areas of scientific research. It can provide solutions to deadly diseases, increase food production, computing capabilities, energy production and many unfathomable areas. 

Topics covered under NanoTechnology
Evolution of Nanotechnology
Applications of nanotechnology 
Adverse impact of Nano tech - Health and Environement, Social and ethical
Nano-science and nano-technology in India

Defence Technology

The relevance of technology in the field of defence cannot be understated. In this era of atomic bombs, ballistic missiles, space warfare no defence force can be deprived of the latest technology for defence purposes. India understood the importance of Defence Technology and created DRDO (Defence Research and Development organization) to lead the front of the defence technology. DRDO has provided India with some of the promising missile technologies and other defence capabilities which has improved the defence preparedness of India over time and India has become a formidable force in the world.


Robotics and Automation have changed the face of Manufacturing Industries and made the production process smooth and safe. Now the major robotic research is directed towards creating humanoids. The most developed model of humanoid is Sophia which was introduced by Hong Kong-based Hanson Robotics two years ago. It is a futuristic science and holds a lot of potential for human society.  

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