Public Administration Answer Writing Practice - Week 7 - Question 5
90 Days Public Administration Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 19-Jan-2018
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19-Jan-2018 - Question 1
.... in most cases .... newly independent states, of the nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America , despite their differences .... are in transition. (Ferrel Heady). What common features are indicative of characteristics of their administrative patterns (cultures) ? (2013)
The countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America had adopted administrative models from the West, while their existing social systems were difficult to dismantle. Many of the countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are either undeveloped or underdeveloped. Some of them are in a transition phase.Countries like South Sudan gained independence only in 2011.
Characteristics of societies in these countries.
- They have ascriptive values ie values are imposed from above and people are bound by these values. There is fear of the social boycott.
- Particularistic norms in the society. The society is divided on the line of religion, caste, tribe and regions.
- There is limited social and special mobility. People are not allowed to migrate.
- Simple and stable occupation pattern.
- The existence of differential stratification system.
The characteristic of their administrative structure:-
- The high influence of colonial history on their administrative structure. Due to which there is elitism in bureaucracy. The way of functioning of the administrative structure is not evolved with the need of the time.
- Dualism in the administration similar to the formalism of Riggs. There is a discrepancy between prescriptive and descriptive.
- Presence of both semi-skilled and unskilled workers. most of the skilled labour force migrate for better opportunities to the developed countries. So their countries face the problem of migration of best brains.
- The discretionary power of the administrative authorities especially bureaucracy tends to be more discrete in their functioning due to their high-level knowledge and expertise. Unrestricted use of discretionary power gives often leads to corruption and nepotism.
- Using traditional tools and techniques in the administration. Even though e-governance is ushered through the administrative systems of developing nations, it has to go a long way to reach the level of developed nations like UK and USA
- In each and every sphere of life formalism is present. Societies are often caught between feudalism, hereditary vs Modernism.
Post-WWII independent nations have resorted to the imitation of western administrative practices but their failure led to the emergence of administrative thought relevant to local cultures along with applicable global practices like NPM etc and the transition phase still in progress with the tilt towards globalized administrative practices and patterns.