Public Administration Answer Writing Practice - Week 1 - Question 4
90 Days Public Administration Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 06-Dec-2017
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06-Dec-2017 - Question 2
Douglas McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y describe two contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in an organization. Examine (2016)
McGregor has developed a theory of motivation on the basis of hypotheses relaxing to human behavior. According to him, the function of motivating people to involve a certain assumption about human nature. Theory X and Theory Y are two sets of assumptions about the nature of people.
Comparison Between Theory X and Theory Y
|Theory X||Theory Y|
|Inherent dislike for work and whenever possible they attempt to avoid work||Work is natural like rest or play. They enjoy work.|
|External Control and close supervision||Self-direction and self-control|
|Avoid Responsibility||Accept and seek responsibility under proper direction|
|Leadership is autocratic, based on authority only||Leadership is participative and teamwork is based on competence|
|Lack creativity and resist change||creativity widely spread|
|People lack self-motivation||People are self-motivating|
McGregor calls his theory X as the traditional view of direction and control. An organization is built upon in notion of Theory X will be one in which there are close supervision and control of subordinated and high centralization of authority. The climate in Theory X organization would be impersonal-this theory implies the use of Carrot and stick Approach .
While in Theory Y, integration of behaviors is the key process in management, because it results in the creation of condition conducive for the members to achieve their own goals best by directing their effort towards the success of the enterprise. With participation and recognition, manager influence the motivation of the individuals.
Theory X assumed that the lower order needs such as physiological, security needs (Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs) dominate in motivating individuals. Whereas Theory Y assumed that the higher order needs like social, esteem and self-actualization needs dominate in influencing the individual s motivation.
The concept of the Theory X and Theory Y is smilier to Likert s concept of Job-centered and employee-entered manger. So, it is the responsibility of the manager to make the workers do their jobs with carrot and stick policy. There is a top-down superior-subordinate relation in theory X. While in theory Y, it is the responsibility of manatee to create a conducive or congenial environment where the individual is committed to work.