Political Science Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 10 - Question 5
90 Days Political Science Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 18-Jan-2019
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3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.
4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.
5. All the Best.
18-Jan-2019 - Question 1
Analyze the stalled progress of Doha round of WTO negotiations over the differences between the developed and developing countries. (2017) - 200 words
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The Doha round of trade talks was an attempted multilateral trade agreement. It would have been between every member of the World Trade Organization. It was launched at the Doha, Qatar WTO meeting in November 2001. Its goal was to finish up by January 2005, but the deadline was pushed back to 2006. The talks were finally suspended in June 2006. That's because the United States and the European Union refused to reduce agricultural subsidies.
The Doha round process was ambitious. First, all WTO members (almost every country in the world) participated. Second, decisions must be settled by consensus, as opposed to majority rule. That means every country must sign off. Third, there are no piecemeal sub-agreements. That means there is either an entire agreement or none at all. In other words, unless every country agrees with the whole deal, it's off
The agreement's purpose was to boost the economic growth of developing countries. It centered on reducing subsidies for developed countries’ agricultural industries. That would allow developing countries to export food, something they were already good at producing. In return, the developing countries would open up their market to services, particularly banking. That would provide new markets to the developed countries’ service industries. It would also modernize these markets for the developing countries.
it had been successful, Doha would have improved the economic vitality of developing countries. It would have reduced government spending on subsidies in developed countries, but boosted financial companies. Perhaps they would have focused on developing those markets instead of selling derivatives. That might have lessened the devastation of the financial crisis.
Unfortunately, agribusiness lobbies in the United States and the European Union put political pressure on their legislatures. That ended the Doha round of negotiations. As a result, bilateral agreements have increased. They are easier to negotiate. Whether this is good for developing countries remains to be seen.
The failure of Doha also means that future multilateral trade agreements are also probably doomed to fail for the same reason as Doha. The EU and U.S. agricultural industries won't take the risk of allowing low-cost foreign food imports to take any of their domestic market share.
Similarly, small emerging market countries have seen what the United States and EU agribusiness has done to local economies in Mexico thanks to NAFTA. That means major trade agreements that are in the works are more likely to fail unless there is a level playing field for local farmers.
That includes the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, the pending agreement between the United States and the EU.
The main reason the Doha talks collapsed was that the United States and EU weren't willing to give up their agricultural subsidies.
But other sticking points must be resolved if the talks are to resume. First, China, India, and Brazil need to be more supportive of the talks. They must also be willing to take on the leadership role given to developed countries.
Second, the United States, Japan, and China must realize their "currency wars" are exporting inflation to other countries, such as Brazil and India. They must accept the responsibility and not treat their monetary policies as simply domestic issues.
Third, Doha must dangle the carrot of more liberal service export regulations. That would entice the United States and other developed countries. Otherwise, they will move ahead on their own with the Trade in Services Agreement negotiations.
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