Political Science Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 1 - Question 5

90 Days Political Science Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 16-Nov-2018

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.

 

2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

16-Nov-2018 - Question 1

Explicate the conception of justice in the critiques of communitarian theorists. (2014) - 250 words

 

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Model Answer

Justice is a moral virtue establishing rational order and a collective name for the most important social utilities,  which are conducive to fostering  and protecting human liberty. According to Tom Campbell, Justice is the central and commanding concept of current mainstream normative political philosophy. Rawl’s book, “Theory of Justice” has started what has been rightly called as golden age in theorizing about justice. Communitarians are the person who give preference to community over individual.

Communitarians inspired by Charles Taylor and Hannah Arendt argued that individuals are always embedded in a network of social  relationships, never the social isolated that liberalism  assumes, and they have obligations to the community. Liberalism  conception of individual as atomistic, abstracted or self-interested  was criticized by communitarians as colossal mistake.

Michael  Sandels in  "Liberalism  & limits of  Justice"  said  while defining  Justice, idea of good  should precede Right unlike  Rawls who called Rights prior  to good & good within boundary of  Rights. For Sandels, State need not  be neutral but should promote conception  of good which is beneficial to society. He  calls Justice not as the art of integration, but  art of differentiation. Sandels calls Rawls as highly  individualistic and biased for describing concept of absolute  Justice based on value system of USA.

Michael  Walzer  in  "Spheres  of Justice"  recognises  politics of  differences and  neglecting it will  lead to homogenization  which is detrimental to  conception of Justice. He  gave concept of Complex  Equality:  "Different  goods ought  to be distributed differently"  in criticism of simple equality  adopted by Rawls which says one  size fits all. He says different spheres of  Rights have different formula for Justice as no  grand theory of justice exists. Hence, Justice is culture-specific concept. Walzer conceived a  “post-liberal  state”  that accepted  moral membership  in a community as  the greatest good and  had a concern for the issue  of complex equality.

Rawls in second  book  “Political  Liberalism” responded to his Communitarian critics by wrestling with the problem of cultural heterogeneity within liberal states. Hence, conception of Justice by communitarians was significant and in alignment with globalized times where multi-cultural societies are gaining ground.

 

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