Philosophy Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 2 - Question 6

90 Days Philosophy Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 23-Nov-2018

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.


2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

23-Nov-2018 - Question 2

Evaluate the statment that all human beings have certain unalienable rights. (2016)

For Question 1 - Click Here


Model Answer


Rights are defined as claims of individuals on state for his happiness without abrogating others’ happiness.


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in its preamble speaks about unalienable human rights as follows – “The recognition of the inherent dignity and equality of all human beings and their inalienable rights is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world”.


John Locke who is considered the father of Liberalism says – “Humans form a social contract with the state, they have a natural right to defend ‘life, liberty, health or possessions’”.


There are two kinds of rights. One is natural rights and another are socio-political rights.


1.   Socio-political rights: Rights given to citizen of a state as a part of their political obligation, e.g., Right to vote, right to contest elections of the state.


2.   Natural rights: These are natural in the sense that they are attached to every human being on account of being a human. These rights are not curtailed ARBITRARILY by states awarding them, since they are natural and are intrinsic to any form of government. Hence they are called universal and inalienable rights.


e.g., Right to life under Article 21 of Constitution of India, which states “No person shall be deprived of his life except according to a procedure established by law”.

As the idea of justice determines the principles on which law should be based, the idea of human rights sets the standards on which all other rights should be based.



When an individual’s civil, political and socio-economic rights are exhausted, he can still hope to get some relief under human rights. Human rights act as all-pervading to any rights that are promised by any state. They act as goal posts to any system of rights hence are unalienable.



Note: There is no template for a correct UPSC answer, the model answer is only for your reference

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