Minor Peninsular River

In this article, following important rivers of Peninsular India- the Kaveri river, the Pennar river, the Subarnarekha river, the Ponnaiyar river and the Vaigai river are discussed.

The Kaveri River

The Kaveri river also spelt Cauvery is the longest river of Peninsular India. And the Kaveri is also the third largest river after Godavari and Krishna in south India and the largest in Tamil Nadu which on its course, bisects the state into North and South. The Kaveri river has water flow throughout the year because it gets rainwater from south-west monsoons in the upper-catchment area (located in Karnataka) and from the north-east monsoons in the lower-catchment area (located in Tamil Nadu).

Source of origin of the Kaveri river: The Kaveri river rises from Talakaveri in the hills of Brahmagiri in Coorg district in the state of Karnataka.

Confluence or mouth of the Kaveri river: The Kaveri river drains its waters into the Bay of Bengal before forming a wide delta called the garden of southern India.

Major Tributaries of the Kaveri river

  • The Laxmantiratha River
  • The Kabani River
  • The Suvarnavati River
  • The Noyil River
  • The Bhavani River
  • The Amravati River
  • The Herangi River
  • The Hemavati River
  • The Shimsha River
  • The Akrawati River

The Kaveri basin

The Kaveri river flows in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and a small river basin also lie in Kerala and union territory of Puducherry. It is bounded by the Western Ghats on the west, by the Eastern Ghats on the east and the south and by the ridges separating it from Krishna basin and Pennar basin on the north.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Kaveri river system

  • The Krishnarajsagar Dam- The dam has been constructed across the Kaveri river in Mandya district in the state of Karnataka. The primary purpose of the dam is to supply irrigation water in the region and increase agriculture production and productivity.
  • The Kabani Dam- The Kabani Dam has been constructed in Mysore district in the state of Karnataka. The dam generates hydro-electricity and provides irrigation water in the region.
  • The Harangi Dam- The Harangi dam has been constructed across the Harangi river (tributary of Kaveri) in Kodagu district in the state of Karnataka.
  • The Hemavathy Dam- The multipurpose dam has been constructed across the Kaveri river in Hassan district in the state of Karnataka.
  • The Mettur Dam- The multipurpose dam has been constructed across the Kaveri river in Mettur in Salem district in the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • The Kodaganar Dam- The Kodaganar dam has been constructed across the Kaveri river in Dindigul district in the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • The Nanganjiyar Dam- The Nanganjiyar dam has been constructed across the Nanganjiyar river in Dindigul district in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Other facts related to the Kaveri river system

  • Shivasundaram falls, the second largest waterfalls in India is on the Kaveri river in Mandya District in Karnataka.
  • Important industries in the basin include cotton textile industry in Coimbatore and Mysore, cement factories in Coimbatore and Trichinapally and industries based on mineral and metals. The Salem steel plant and many engineering industries in Coimbatore and Trichinapally are also situated in the Kaveri basin.
  • The waters of Kaveri have supported irrigated agriculture for centuries, and it has been the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India.

 

The Pennar River

The Pennar river or the Uttar Pinakini (Pinaka refers to the 'bow' of Shiva) is one of the major rivers of Peninsular India.

Source of origin of the Pennar river: It rises from the Nandi Hills in Chikkaballapur district in the state of Karnataka.

Confluence or mouth of the Pennar river: The Pennar river drains its waters into the Bay of Bengal.

Major Tributaries of the Pennar river

  • The Jayamangali River
  • The Kunderu River
  • The Sagileru River
  • The Chiravati River
  • The Papagni River
  • The Cheyyeru River

The Pennar river basin

The Pennar river flows through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The Pennar basin is fan-shaped. The basin is bounded by the Erramala range on the north, by the Nallamala and Velikonda ranges on the east, by the Nandidurg hills on the south and by the narrow ridge separating it from the Vedavati valley of the Krishna Basin on the west. The other hill ranges in the basin to the south of the river are the Seshachalam and Paliconda ranges. The basin lies in the rain shadow region of Eastern Ghats.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Pennar river system:

  • The Somasila Dam- The dam has been constructed across the Pennar river in Somasila village near Atmakur city in Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore district in the state of Andhra Pradesh.

 

The PonnaiyarRiver

It is known as the 'little Ganga of the South'. It is also known by the name of Dakshina Pinakini.

Source of origin of the Ponnaiyar river: It rises near Hongashenhalli village in the Kolar district of Karnataka state.

Confluence or mouth of the Ponnaiyar river: The Ponnaiyar river drains its waters into the Bay of Bengal.

Major Tributaries of the Ponnaiyar river:

  • The Chinnar River
  • The Markanda River
  • The Vaniar River
  • The Pamban River

The Ponnaiyar river basin

The river drains in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The basin is bounded in North-West and South by the Eastern Ghats and by the Bay of Bengal In the East.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Ponnaiyar river system:

  • The Sathanur Dam- The multipurpose dam has been constructed across the Ponnaiyar river near Thiruvannamalai in the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • TheKrishnagiri Dam- The dam has been constructed across the Ponnaiyar river in Krishnagiri district in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Other characteristics of the Ponnaiyar river system:

  • The river is dry for the most part of the year. Water flows during the monsoon season when it is fed by the south-west monsoon in the catchment area and the northeast monsoon in Tamil Nadu.

The SubarnarekhaRiver

The Subarnarekha is one of the longest east flowing inter-state rivers.

Source of origin of the Subarnarekha river:

It rises from the Chotanagpur plateau near Nagri village in Ranchi District in the state of Jharkhand.

Confluence or mouth of the Subarnarekha river:

The Subarnarekha river drains its waters into the Bay of Bengal.

Primary Tributaries of the Subarnarekha river

  • The Kanchi River
  • The Karkari River
  • The Kharkai River
  • The Dulang River

The Subarnarekha river basin

The Subernarekha basin extends over states of Jharkhand, Odisha and comparatively smaller part in West Bengal. The basin is located in the north-east corner of Peninsular India. It is bounded by the Chhotanagpur plateau on the north and the west, by the ridges separating it from Baitarani basin on the south, by the Bay of Bengal on the south-east and by the Kasai Valley of Kangsabati River on the east.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Subarnarekha river system:

  • The Getalsud Project- A dam is constructed across the Subarnarekha river in Ranchi district in the state of Jharkhand.
  • The Subarnarekha Multi-Purpose Project- It is a joint project of the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha. Under the project, the Chandil dam, the Icha dam, the Kharkai barrage and the Galudih barrage have been constructed.

Other characteristics of the Subarnarekha river system:

  • The picturesque Hundru Falls is created on the course of the Subarnarekha river.

 

The VaigaiRiver

Source of origin of the Vaigai river: It rises from the hills of Varushanad in Madurai district in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Confluence or mouth of the Vaigai river: The Vaigai drains into the Palk Bay near Mandapam.

Major Tributaries of the Vaigai river:

  • The Siruliar River
  • The Theniar River
  • The Varaha Nadi
  • The Mangalar River

The Vaigai river basin

The basin is bounded by the Varushanadu hills, the Andipatti hills, the Cardaman hills and the Palani hills on the West and by the Palk Strait and Palk Bay on the East.

Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Vaigai river system:

  • The Vaigai Dam- It is built across the Vaigai River near Andipatti in Theni district in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Other facts related to the Vaigai river system:

  • Vattaparai Falls are formed by the Vaigai river in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu.

    Talk to us for

    UPSC preparation support!









Options

Do you want to become an IAS officer like Saumya Sharma?
Study Online at  Neostencil Logo

Your Exam segments is being saved. Please wait....

Select Exam(s) you are interested in

IAS IES/GATE IIT-JEE NEET STATE PSC CSIR UGC NET OTHERS
please enter valid OTP