Manganese Ore And Its Distribution
Manganese does not exist as a free element in nature. It is available in combination with iron, laterite and other minerals. Manganese comprises about 0.1 percent of the earth's crust and is the 12th most abundant element. Manganese is silver grey in colour and is very hard and brittle in nature. Manganese is an essential input in steel making which makes it one of the most important metals in an industrial economy. It is considered as a strategic material.
Manganese Ore Distribution: World and India
Manganese has various uses. Primarily, it is used in the production of steel, where the Manganese ore is directly put as a feed in the blast furnace. It is also the basic raw material for manufacturing various metallic alloys. Further, Manganese is used in manufacturing dry cell batteries, where it acts as a depolarizer of hydrogen. Manganese is widely used in the chemical industry. It is used for manufacturing potassium permanganate, bleaching powder, fertilisers and fungicides.
Apart from these, Manganese compounds such as Manganese Sulphide is used in the manufacture of salts and in calico printing. Manganese salts are used in leather and matchbox industries and also in photography. Manganese Chloride is used in textile industry as a dyeing agent. Pyrolusite (Manganese ore) is also used for glazing pottery and for making coloured bricks.
Manganese Ore has following four varieties which have commercial importance:
- Pyrolusite (the most important Manganese ore)
Distribution of Manganese Ore across the world
Even though an abundant source of Manganese Ore deposits exists at the bottom of the sea, the present economically exploitable reserves are located in the continental surface areas. Recognised Manganese Ore reserves, with Mn contents higher than 35% are located in South Africa, Russia, India, Australia, Brazil, Gabon, USA, China, Ghana and Mexico.
Important Manganese Ore mining centre in South Africa is Kuruman area of Kalahari Basin. South Africa ranks first in terms of Manganese production. It is also the leading exporter of Manganese ores and concentrates.
Gabon ranks second in terms of Manganese production. Important Manganese Ore mining centre in Gabon is Moanda. Gabon fulfils Manganese requirements of many countries throughout the globe.
In terms of production, Australia ranks third, only after South Africa and Gabon. Major Manganese Ore mining centre in Australia is Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpenteria. The mines in Australia are highly mechanised. The produce is exported to Japan, Europe, USA and other countries.
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Russia are Nikopol Basin, Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia.
The Serra do Navio and Corumba district of Mato Grosso is the major Manganese Ore mining centres. The mines located here perform open-pit mining.
The Manganese Ore found in China is not of high-quality. The resources are scattered throughout the country. The reserves are enough for the country's iron and steel industry but not for exports.
Mexico is a small producer of Manganese Ore products. Major Manganese Ore mining centre in Mexico are Molango region among other minor reserves scattered across Mexico.
Distribution of Manganese Ore in India
Manganese ore mining in the country is carried out by opencast as well as by underground methods.
India is a leading producer of manganese in the world. Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat are major Manganese deposit states.
Manganese Ore reserves (in descending order)
- Madhya Pradesh
Manganese Ore production (in descending order)
- Madhya Pradesh
The Manganese Ore is widely distributed in the country-
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Madhya Pradesh are Balaghat and Chhindwara.
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Odisha are Kendujhar, Bonai, Kalahandi and Koraput.
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Maharashtra are Ratnagiri, Nagpur and Bhandara.
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Karnataka are Bellary, Shimoga, North Kanara and Tumkur.
Major Manganese Ore mining centre in Jharkhand is Western Singhbhum.
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Andhra Pradesh are Adilabad and Vijayanagar.
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Rajasthan are Banswara and Udaipur.
Major Manganese Ore mining centres in Gujarat are Vodadara and Panch Mahal areas.
Manganese Production and Export: India
Consumption of Manganese Ore has considerably increased in India over the last two decades because of its increasing use in iron and steel industry and in manufacturing dry cell batteries. Manganese Ore is also exported to many countries including Japan, USA and European nations. In this way, it also contributes to foreign exchange reserves of the country.
India has large deposits of Manganese Ore, however, India has not been able to increase its exports. This is because of the following reasons:
- New mines have been opened and operationalised in Brazil and Gabon. These mines are highly mechanised. Since they are relatively near to European countries and USA who are the major consumers of Manganese.
- Russia has increased up its exports, particularly to the east European countries.
- India is in Manganese Ore competition with countries which have access to cheap and quick means of transportation and shipping ports with modern loading and handling devices.