The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin climate is also known as the Laurentian climate. It is the intermediate between the British and Siberian type of climates.
- It is found only in two regions and only in the northern hemisphere.
- The climate has features of both the continental and the maritime climates.
- North American region: One region is north-eastern North America including eastern Canada, north-east USA, and Newfoundland.
- Asiatic region: The other region is the eastern coastlands of Asia, including North China, eastern Siberia, Manchuria, Korea and northern Japan.
- The climate is totally absent in the southern hemisphere because only a small section of continental landmass extends south of the latitude of 40 S.
- The only possible regions are in eastern Patagonia.
- But the Southern Andes blocks the Westerlies and the region is subjected to aridity rather than continentality.
- It is a rain-shadow region and its annual precipitation is not more than 10 inches.
- The climate of this type has cold, dry winters and warm, wet summers.
- Snow falls to quite a depth and winter temperatures may be well below the freezing point.
- Summers are as warm as the tropics and are moderated by the cooling effects of the off-shore cold currents from the Arctic.
- Rain falls throughout the year.
- But there is a distinct summer maximum because the easterly winds from the oceans bring rainfall.
- Two-thirds of the annual precipitation is in summer.
- Winters are dry and cold and westerlies blow out from the continental interiors.
The North American region
- The most remarkable characteristic of this region is the uniformity in annual precipitation.
- This is due to the Atlantic influence and that of the Great Lakes.
- The warm Gulf Stream increases the moisture content of easterly winds from the open Atlantic.
- The prevailing Westerlies carry depressions over the Great Lakes towards eastern regions causing wet conditions, especially in winter.
- Convergence of the warm Gulf Stream and the cold Labrador Current near Newfoundland produces dense mist and fog and gives rise to much precipitation.
- It is said that Newfoundland experiences more drizzles than any other part of the world.
- In summer the Westerlies bring fewer depressions and extend their continental influence to the coast.
- Temperatures are high in summer for that latitude and prolonged heat waves cause discomfort in crowded cities.
The Asiatic region
- In contrast to the North American region, the distribution of precipitation is less uniform in the Asiatic region.
- Winters are very cold and dry while summers are warm and exceptionally wet.
- The rainfall regime resembles the tropical monsoon type in India where the rainfall is concentrated in the three summer months.
The climate in Japan
- The climate of Japan is modified by its insularity and also by the meeting of warm (Kuroshio)and cold (Oyashio) ocean currents.
- It receives adequate rainfall from both the South-East Monsoon in summer and the North-West monsoon in winter.
- The rainfall is more evenly distributed with two maxima: the Plum rain in June and the Typhoon Rain in September.
- The predominant vegetation in this climate is cool temperate forests.
- The heavy rainfall, the warm summers and the damp air from fogs all favour the growth of trees.
- Forest tend to be coniferous north of the 50 N latitude.
- South of this latitude, deciduous forests is seen.
- Lumbering and its associated timber, paper and pulp industries are the most important economic activities in the region.
- Lumbering has always been a major occupation in the sparsely populated Asiatic region and timber is the chief export item.
- The occurrence of trees in almost pure stands and the predominance of only a handful of species greatly enhance the commercial value of the forests.
- Agriculture is less important due to long and severe winters.
- The maritime influence and the heavy rainfall enable the growth of some hardy crops.
- In the North American region, arable farming is not carried out on a large scale and farmers are mostly engaged in dairy farming and fruit growing.
Fishing is another outstanding economic activity of the Laurentian climatic regions.
- This is one of the world's largest fishing grounds, particularly on the Grand Banks.
- The mixing of the warm Gulf Stream and the cold Labrador currents enable the growth of plankton and microorganisms.
- Fish feed on minute marine organisms called plankton present abundantly in the continental shelves and in shallow waters adjacent to the landmasses.
- Fish of all types and sizes breed her and support a thriving industry of not only Canada and USA, but also Norway, France, Britain, Portugal, Denmark, Russia and Japan.
- Both pelagic fish(which live near the surface) and the demersal fish (which live near the bottom) of shallow seas are caught.
- Over-fishing is a growing problem and strict measures in fish conservation are being taken.
- Another major fishing area of the world in the North-West Pacific surrounding the islands of Japan.
- The mountainous nature of Japan and parts of mainland eastern Asia have drive people towards fishing.
- Hakodate and Kushiro are the major fishing ports and fish are either canned or preserved for export to neighbouring countries.
- The fish waste, fish meal and seaweeds are used as fertilizers in the farms.
- Coastal farms submerged in water grow seaweeds for sale as fertilizers, chemical ingredient and even as food.
- Another important aspect of fishing the pearl culture.
- Pearl oysters are brought to the surface and the highly prized pearls are extracted for sale as ornaments.
- Japan's fishing is not limited to its territorial waters but they venture far and wide into the Arctic, Antarctic and the Atlantic waters.
Fishing is a dominant occupation in Japan for the following reasons:
- Japan is not well endowed with natural resources and as much as 80 per cent of its land is non-agricultural. Hence people have taken up fishing for their livelihood and it has become their traditional occupation.
- Lack of lowlands and pastures means that only a few animals can be kept to supply meat and other protein food. Fish meat is the primary source of protein in Japan.
- The continental shelves around the Japanese islands are rich in plankton due to the meeting of warm Kurushio and cold Oyashio currents. These form excellent breeding grounds for fish.
- The indented coastline of Japan provides sheltered fishing ports, calm waters and safe landing places.
- With the progress of industries, fishing has become more scientific, aiming at heavy hauls, high returns and economy of time, effort and money.
- Most of the deep-sea fishing is now highly mechanised. Powered trawlers and modern refrigeration plants have increased the annual fish yield.