History Answer Writing Practice - Week 4 - Question 3
90 Days History Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 27-Dec-2017
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27-Dec-2017 - Question 1
Explain Constructive Swadeshi characterised by atmashakti (self-reliance), which propelled the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.2015 (10 Marks, 150 words)
The Swadeshi Movement (1905) had its genesis in the anti-partition movement which was stated to oppose the British decision to partition Bengal. According to historian Sumit Sarkar, there were four major trends in Bengal Swadeshi, namely, the moderate trends, constructive swadeshi, political extremism and revolutionary terrorism.
Constructive Swadeshi developed with an emphasis on self-reliance, village level organisation and constructive programmes to develop indigenous or swadeshi alternatives for foreign goods and institutions. Rabindranath Tagore emerged as the main ideologue of this constructive swadeshi.Constructive Swadeshi Programme includes the following:-
It included amateurish attempt to manufacture daily necessities, national education, arbitration court and village organisation.
Manufacturing daily necessities - Bengal chemical factory was started as a swadeshi enterprise in 1893 and another factory was started in 1901 to manufacture porcelain. The swadeshi enterprise like textile mills and handlooms, match and soap factories and tanneries were also set up.
- Swadeshi education - National education movement started with Bhagavat Chatuspathi (1895) of Satish Chandra Mukherjee, the dawn society (1902-07), the Saraswat Ayatan of Brahmabandhab Upadhyay (1902), Shanti Niketan Ashram of Ravindranath Tagore (1901), Bengal National College (1906).
Swadesh bandhab Samiti settled 523 disputes through its 89 arbitration committees by August 1906.