History Answer Writing Practice - Week 2 - Question 5

90 Days History Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 15-Dec-2017

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.

2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded to this page next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

15-Dec-2017 - Question 1

''Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war''''. Examine this statement with reference to Lord William Bentinck. (2016)

Model Answer

William Bentinck (1828-35) was the First Governor General of India. His seven years rule

provided a break from past policy of wars and annexations which started under Robert Clive.

 

Examples of policy of wars and Annexations before William Bentinck-

  • Battle of Plassey in 1757 under Robert Clive
  • Battle of Buxar in 1764 under Hector Munro
  • First Anglo-Maratha war, Second Anglo-Mysore war under William Hastings
  • Third Anglo-Mysore war under Lord Cornwallis
  • Fourth Anglo-Mysore war under Lord Wellesley
  • The policy of subsidiary alliance brought by Wellesley and under it, the annexation of Hyderabad, Mysore etc.
  • First Indo-Burma War (1824-26) under Lord Amherst.
In sharp contrast to the policy of wars and annexations, William Bentinck's tenure is known for a number of reforms undertaken in various fields like Social, public service, Judicial, Financial, Education etc

Social Reforms

  • Abolition of Sati and cruel rites in 1829
  • Suppression of Infanticide and child sacrifices
  • Suppression of Thugi
Public Service Reforms
  • No distinction on the basis of religion, place of birth, descent or colour in public service recruitment under Charter act of 1833.
Liberal Policy towards press
  • He believed press to be safety-valve for discontent and adopted a liberal policy towards it.
Education Reforms
  • He defined the aim of education and English as a medium of instruction.
  • Committee on public instruction under Macaulay was set up.
Financial Reforms
  • Set up 2 committees to recommend economy in expenditure.
  • Reduced bhattas of military officers, reduced allowances of civil servants.
  • Employed Indians as far as possible.
  • Opium trade was regularised and licensed.
  • Encouraged iron and coal production, tea and coffee plantations, irrigation systems.
  • Land revenue collection increased under him.
Judicial Reforms
  • Abolished provincial courts of appeal set up by Lord Cornwallis.
  • A separate Sadr Nizamat and Sadr Diwani Adalat was set up at Allahabad.
  • Vernacular languages other Persian can also be used as court language.
  • In higher courts, English replaced Persian.
  • Qualified Indians were appointed at the Junior judicial post of munsiffs.
Policy towards Indian states
  • Non-interference as far as possible even though strong reasons were available for intervention in Jodhpur, Bundi, Kota, Jaipur, Bhopal.
  • Treaty of Perpetual policy with Ranjit Singh.

However, there was the deviation from above policy. He annexed Coorg, Mysore and Cachar on the plea of misgovernance. In addition, Lord Bentinck was Utilitarian who wanted to change India by rule of law and implemented these policies to lay down a strong foundation for the British imperialism.

Note: The model answer is only for your reference and not an ideal answer for the question.

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