History Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 7 - Question 6
90 Days History Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 28-Dec-2018
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28-Dec-2018 - Question 2
Discuss in brief the land-revenue system and judicial administration of the Delhi Sultanate. (2015) (20 Marks, 300 words)
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Delhi Sultanate was established in the early thirteenth century when Qutubuddin Aibak laid the foundation of Ilbari Turq Dynasty (Slave dynasty). The new systems were developed in every field of statecraft which marks the diffusion of Indian and Muslim civilization.
The land-revenue system of the Sultans was based on the Hanafi school of Muslim law.
The entire territory was divided into Iqtas and it was the duty of Iqtadar to collect the revenue and send it to the royal treasury after deducting his expense. Khalisa land was under direct control of the crown whose revenue was used for the expense of royal court.
Initially, assessment of revenue was done by the guess or computation. Allauddin Khilji
had devised the scheme of Jarib and strived hard to remove the defects of the then existing system of assessment.
The land assessment was called Kharaj. It was mainly of two types, they were Kharaji -
Wizijah and kharaji-I-Muqasimah. Allauddin had increased it up to 50 percent.
Allauddin exercised strict control over the officers engaged in revenue collection and regularly checked the account.
The payment of tax could be given in both cash and kind.
Muhammad Bin Tughalaq had established a separate department for agriculture ‘Diwan-i-Amir-Kohi’ which took efforts to bring more land under cultivation so that more revenue could be generated.
Firuz Shah Tughalaq had taken effort for irrigation and constructed the various canal. He collected the one-tenth of the produce as irrigation tax.
Emperor was the highest judicial authority of the state. He was the highest appellate authority of the state.
Qazi-ul-Quzat was the highest judicial officer in the state after the Sultan. He had both original and appellate jurisdiction. Mostly, the offices of Sadr-us-sudur and Qazi-ul-quzat were combined in one person.
Qazis and Sadars were appointed in the cities to look after the civil as well as criminal cases.
The Chaudhry, the Patwari, the Khut, the Muqaddam and the Chaukidar were the hereditary officers of the village who dispensed justice at the local level.
The legal system was based on Islamic law i.e. on Quran and Hadith but rulers like Alllauddin and Muhammad Bin Tughalaq also considered rationality in judgment and kept religious elements away from the political affairs.
The judicial system was not organized well and often trial was conducted without proper investigation. The nature of the law was harsh punishments like mutilation of organ, capital punishment was very frequent.