History Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 10 - Question 6
90 Days History Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 18-Jan-2019
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18-Jan-2019 - Question 2
"The failure of Kuomintang against the communist onslaught was unimaginable and it was Mao Tse-tung whose tenacity and innovative approach had accomplished the unthinkable." Discuss. (2015) (20 Marks, 300 words)
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China had three governments one ruled in the Manchuria region with capital at Nanking, another was the nationalist government under the Chiang-Kai-Shek and third one was the Communist government. The nationalist government of Kuomintang had the all resources and even they had the support of allied power but they failed against the Communist under the leadership of Mao Tse-tung.
Causes of the success of the Communists:
Unexpected victory of the Communist Party of China (CCP) over the KMT in the civil war was largely due to the weakening of the nationalist forces after involvement in fierce combat with Japanese forces and prevalence of corruption among party leaders.
During the invasion, Japan had occupied the cities and industries of China due to which most of the capitalists migrated to the interior regions and they lost their previous powers and influence over the party which was now occupied by the landed gentry. Under the leadership of rural landlords, KMT became anti-capitalist and this retrogressive step antagonized the intelligentsia and middle class.
Nationalists became the ruler after the fall of Japan but they failed to implement a suitable program to improve the condition of the poorer sections of the society, the peasantry, and the workers.
Nationalist armies were poorly paid and were allowed to loot the countryside. Subjected to communist propaganda, they gradually became disillusioned with Chiang and began to desert to the communists.
Chiang also made some tactical blunders, he could not bear to order retreats and consequently, his scattered armies were surrounded and often surrendered without any resistance.
The communists, in contrast, continued to win popular support by their restrained land policy which varied according to the needs of particular areas.
communists were well disciplined, and communist administration was honest and scrupulously fair.
The CCP leaders, Mao, and Chou En Lai were shrewd enough to take advantage of KMT weaknesses and were completely dedicated. The communist generals Chu Teh, Lin Piao and Chen Yi, had prepared their armies carefully and were more competent tactically than their KMT counterparts.