Yojana Gist for June 2020 - UPSC and Govt Exam

TECHNOLOGY

Topic: Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan


What is the context?

Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi has announced the launch of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan during his address to the nation on 12th May 2020.

What are the features of the Abhiyan?

  • As part of the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, Prime Minister announced a special economic package and gave a clarion call for Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  • This special economic package, along with earlier announcements made by the government during the COVID crisis and decisions taken by RBI, is to the tune of Rs 20 lakh crore, which is equivalent to almost 10% of India’s Gross Domestic Product (USD 2.72 lakh crore(2018)).
  • As mentioned in his address to the nation, the package will also focus on land, labour, liquidity and laws.
  • It will cater to various sections including cottage industry, MSMEs, labourers, middle class, and industries, among others.
  • The package will provide a much needed boost towards achieving ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’.

What are the five pillars of the Abhiyan?

  • Economy - which brings in quantum jump and not incremental jump
  • Infrastructure - which should become the identity of India
  • System - based on 21st century technology driven arrangements
  • Vibrant Demography - which is our source of energy for a self-reliant India
  • Demand - whereby the strength of our demand and supply chain should be utilised to full capacity

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Topic: Industry 4.0


What is the context?

  • A Pilot Project for ushering in ‘Industry 4.0’ in the country is launched for implementation at the Modern Coach Factory (MCF), Raebareli.
  • Industry 4.0, also known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it encompasses three technological trends driving this transformation - connectivity, intelligence and flexible automation.

What are the Industrial Revolutions witnessed?

  • The first industrial revolution came with the advent of mechanisation, steam power and water power.
  • The second industrial revolution revolved around mass production and assembly lines using electricity.
  • The third industrial revolution came with electronic and IT systems with automation.
  • The fourth industrial revolution is associated with cyber-physical systems.

What is Industry 4.0?

  • ‘Industry 4.0’ commonly referred to as the fourth industrial revolution, is a name given to the current trend of automation, interconnectivity and data exchange in manufacturing technologies to increase productivity.
  • Industry 4.0 is a complex Cyber-Physical Systems which synergizes production with digital technologies, the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data & Analytics, Machine Learning and Cloud Computing.
  • Therefore, the architecture to be conceptualized and formulated in MCF initially would be gradually expanded in a phased manner to encompass all complexities that constitute Industry 4.0 in all manufacturing spheres in the country.
  • Full transition to the digital factory using ‘Industry 4.0’ across entire value chain from design to production will help enhance productivity hugely by providing insight into production process and also make the decisions in real-time basis.
  • This will also help in minimizing human errors by effective monitoring to ensure that resources are put to the best utilization measured by, what is called the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).
  • Such a National Policy for Advanced Manufacturing envisages that manufacturing sector should contribute at least 25% to GDP.
  • All over the world, countries who have been able to achieve phenomenal growth, could do that with the advent of rapid strides in manufacturing sector.
  • This initiative in Railways may have wider ramifications to spur growth in defence production as well as in private manufacturing sector also.

Why is there a shift in approach?

  • Companies are radically overhauling entire systems of production, management and governance on a constant basis of change.
  • Currently, the technology, talent, and new innovation ecosystems are emerging; building greater complexities into our final innovation offerings.
  • Intelligent automation and technology are fuelling this new industrial revolution.
  • Organisations everywhere are facing mounting pressure to transform-to shift from productioncentric business models to new models focusing on creating and capturing different sources of new value propositions.
  • Industry value chains are being radically redesigned to accommodate connected worlds being more reliant on everything being digital.
  • New materials are making our assets more durable and resilient, and data and analytics provide valuable feedback needed to build even better services and performance for the future. Innovation is the unlocking mechanism.
  • The consequences of the fourth industrial revolution can be seen in the shifts of our emphasis taking place around innovation.

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AIM: Fostering Innovation


What is the context?

  • Sustainable development is the practice of improving human life while protecting the environment.
  • It is perhaps the most important and the most formidable long-term challenge that the world faces.
  • Creative thinking has always been essential for improving national well-being.

What is Atal Innovation Mission?

  • The Government of India has set up Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in the
  • AIM’s objective is to develop new programmes and policies for fostering innovation in different sectors of the economy, provide platform and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders create awareness and create an umbrella structure to oversee innovation ecosystem of the country.

What are the six major initiatives taken in the first year of its establishment?

  • Atal Tinkering Labs has led to Creating problem-solving mind-set across schools in India.
  • Atal Incubation Centres helps in Fostering world-class start-ups and adding a new dimension to the incubator model.
  • Atal New India Challenges helps in Fostering product innovations and aligning them to the needs of various sectors/ministries.
  • Mentor India Campaign in collaboration with public sector, corporates and institutions, to support all the initiatives of the mission.
  • Atal Community Innovation Centre helps to stimulate community centric innovation and ideas in the unserved/underserved regions of the country including Tier 2 and Tier 3 cities.
  • ARISE helps to stimulate innovation and research in the MSME industry.

How will it lead to rise in social entrepreneurship?

  • New inventions and innovations in agriculture, mass production, transportation and communication during the Industrial Revolution were largely responsible for proving Economist, Thomas Malthus wrong, who predicted that the world couldn’t support an exponentially increasing population.
  • Social entrepreneur is a creature of his or her time—a hybrid that combines the driving passion for improving a lot of excluded groups with the practical, innovative and opportunistic traits of the entrepreneur.
  • Social entrepreneurs are focused on the delivery of public goods using business approaches.
  • They are too busy finding the solutions that will allow all people to participate as active producers and consumers in the local, national and global economies.

How can it help in gathering momentum?

  • India, as a country is surrounded with challenges that demand.
  • The last few years have seen innovation in India reach a tipping point with the emergence of innovative Indian companies, the large-scale social innovations and now the big impact innovations in public service.
  • Social enterprises are beginning to leverage Innovation.
  • SKS Microfinance has successfully innovated on the Grameen Bank Microfinance Model.
  • This Business Model Innovation has figured out a unique way to ‘scale up’ the penetration and impact of a Microfinance organisation.
  • SKS has acquired a membership of 5.7 million, across 16 States in 11 years.

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Topic: Digital Platforms


What is the context?

During the ongoing COVID19 pandemic, timely information, direct information to the poor, needy and vulnerable groups can help save many lives and at this point the digital apps developed by the government are playing an important role in responding to the crisis.

What are the main apps?

  1. Aarogya Setu App
    1. The AarogyaSetu app enables the people to assess themselves the risk for their catching the coronavirus infection.
    2. It calculates this base on people’s interaction with others, using cutting-edge bluetooth technology, algorithms and artificial intelligence.
  2. Chatbot
    1. Government of India has launched a Whatsapp chatbot so that the citizens can get instant and authentic answers to all of their queries relate do the Coronavirus pandemic.
  3. Corona Kavach
    1. It is a COVID19 tracker application, created by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
    2. This application provides users with real-time location of infected users who have activated the ‘Kavach’ feature.
  4. COVID19 Feedback
    1. This application has been developed by the centre to get direct feedback from people who have undergone coronavirus treatment in the country.
  5. SAMPRAC
    1. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed an app named ‘SAMPARC’ to enable tracking people under quarantine.
    2. It is a software that includes an app that can be installed on the smart phones of the infected patients.
    3. It is a server-side application that is used by the state authorities to track the patients.
  6. Direct Benefit Transfer
    1. It is a scheme by Government of India to transfer the benefits and subsidies of various social welfare schemes like LPG Subsidy, MNREGA Payments, old age pension, scholarships etc directly in the bank account of the beneficiary.
    2. It has been crucial in implementing the PM Garib Kalyan Yojana that was rolled out to provide relief to the poor and vulnerable amid the COVID19 crisis.
  7. SAHYOG
    1. The Survey of India (SoI) has developed an e-platform that collects geotagged information on the nation’s critical infrastructure in order to help the government and public health agencies take critical decisions in response to the current COVID19 pandemic situation.
    2. The platform has geo-located information of hospitals, testing labs, quarantine camps, containment and buffer zones as well as information on biomedical waste disposal sites.
  8. BHIM App
    1. Bharat Interface for Money is an Indian mobile payment app developed by the National Payments Corporation of India, based on the Unified Payments Interface to help in facilitating e-payments directly through banks as a drive towards cashless transactions.
  9. RuPay
    1. It is a card scheme, conceived and launched by the NPCI to fulfil the RBI’s vision to have a domestic, open and multilateral system of payments.
    2. RuPay facilitates electronic payment at all Indian banks and financial institutions.
  10. UMANG App
    1. Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance is a Government of India all-in-one single unified secure multi-channel multi-platform multi-lingual freeware mobile app for accessing over 1200 central and state government services in multiple Indian languages.
  11. SWAYAM
    1. It is an online education programme initiated by the Government of India to achieve the principles of education policy by providing access, equity and quality.
    2. The objective of this effort is to take the best teaching learning resources to all, including the most disadvantaged.
    3. The Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM) seeks to bridge the digital divide for students who have hitherto remained untouched by the digital revolution and have not been able to join the mainstream of the knowledge economy.
    4. It is done through a platform that facilitates hosting of all the courses, taught in classrooms from Class 9 till post-graduation to be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time.

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Topic: Real Time Monitoring


What is the context?

  • The use of real-time monitoring (RTM) to support national systems strengthening is growing, primarily due to the ubiquitous penetration of mobile phones into global audiences.
  • India is no stranger to RTM systems, having been one of the early adopters of mobile and digital technology in the low-and-middle-income world.
  • It has 1.6 billion telecommunication subscribers in the world, as of March 2019 (TRAI, 2019) and has been adding nearly six million subscribers per month (TRAI 2019).

What is Real Time Monitoring?

  • Real-time (data) monitoring is the delivery of continuously updated information streaming at zero or low latency.
  • IT monitoring involves collecting data periodically throughout an organization's IT environment from on-premises hardware and virtualized environments to networking and security levels, into the application stack -- including those in the cloud -- and out to software UIs.
  • From this data, IT staff analyze system performance, flag anomalies and resolve issues.
  • Real-time monitoring ups the ante by providing a continuous low-latency stream of relevant and current data from which administrators can immediately identify serious problems.
  • Alerts can be more quickly routed to appropriate staff -- or even to automated systems -- for mitigation.
  • By tracking real-time monitoring data over time, organizations can reveal and predict trends and performance

How does real-time monitoring work?

  • Real-time monitoring relays the active and ongoing status of an IT environment.
  • It can be tuned to focus on particular IT assets and at desired granularity.
  • Types of real-time data include the following:
    • CPU and memory utilization;
    • application response time;
    • service availability;
    • network latency;
    • web server requests; and
    • transaction times

What are the benefits?

  • Collecting real-time monitoring data helps IT managers immediately evaluate and react to current events in the IT environment.
  • Moreover, organizations can log and track real-time data over time to identify trends and better recognize abnormalities that fall outside set parameters of system and application behavior. This is known as trend monitoring.
  • Reactive monitoring is a long-established troubleshooting method in IT organizations and data centers.
  • The defining characteristic of this process is revealed by its name.
  • It reacts to triggers that signal an event has occurred.
  • By comparison, proactive monitoring applies monitoring data without requiring a trigger event.
  • In this approach, a monitoring tool can predict problems -- such as a memory leak -- that, if unresolved, could crash an application or an entire server.
  • AI and machine learning are increasingly applied to proactive monitoring to comb through data, track cyclical patterns and flag abnormal behaviors.

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Topic: International Day of Yoga


What is the context?

  • The United Nations theme for this year is “Yoga for Health - Yoga at Home”, which takes into account the social distancing measures announced by most countries.
  • Coinciding with the summer solstice, June 21 is observed as International Yoga Day, recognising the many benefits of the ancient Indian practice of yoga.
  • The year 2020 marks the 6th International Yoga Day.

What is the Background?

  • The UN proclaimed June 21 as International Day of Yoga by passing a resolution on December 11, 2014, during the 69th session of the General Assembly.
  • At the session, Modi had said, “Yoga is an invaluable gift from our ancient tradition. Yoga embodies unity of mind and body, thought and action … a holistic approach [that] is valuable to our health and our well-being. Yoga is not just about exercise; it is a way to discover the sense of oneness with yourself, the world and the nature.”
  • The Yoga Day celebrations in 2015 at Rajpath in New Delhi, with Modi and other dignitaries in attendance, had created two Guinness World Records, performing around 21 yoga asanas.
  • The first record was set for housing 35,985 people and being the world’s largest yoga session.
  • The second was for having the most number (84) of nationalities participating in it.

What is Yoga?

  • The word ‘yoga’ is derived from Sanskrit and means to join or to unite, symbolising the union of a person’s body and consciousness.
  • “Yoga is an ancient physical, mental and spiritual practice that originated in India. The word ‘yoga’ derives from Sanskrit and means to join or to unite, symbolizing the union of body and consciousness,” the United Nations website says.
  • According to its famous practitioner BKS Iyengar, “Yoga cultivates the ways of maintaining a balanced attitude in day-to-day life and endows skill in the performance of one’s actions.”
  • In its ‘Common Yoga Protocol’ from 2019, the Ministry of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) lists Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi, Bandhas and Mudras, Satkarmas, Yuktahara, Mantra-japa, Yukta-karma among popular yoga ‘sadhanas’.
  • The AYUSH protocol describes the folding-hands logo of Yoga Day as reflecting “the union of individual consciousness with that of universal consciousness, a perfect harmony between mind and body, man and nature, the holistic approach to health and well-being. The brown leaves in the logo symbolize the earth element, the green leaves of nature, blue the fire element while the sun symbolises the source of energy and inspiration.”

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Questions for Prelims

  1. Consider the following statements wrt Kisan Sabha app:
    1. Kisan Sabha App has been developed by CSIR Central Road Research Institute.
    2. The objective is to connect farmers to supply chain and freight transportation management system.

Which of the above are correct?

     A. 1 only
     B. 2 only
     C. Neither 1 nor 2
     D. Both 1 and 2

Solution: D

  1. Choose the correct pairs:

Sl No

Cyclone

Origin

1

Cyclone Amphan

Arabian Sea

2

Cyclone Nisarga

Bay of Bengal

Which of the above are correct?

     A. 1 only
     B. 2 only
     C. Neither 1 nor 2
     D. Both 1 and 2

Solution : C

Questions for Mains

  1. How are Tropical Cyclones named?
  2. What is the background of observing International Day of Yoga and it’s benefits?
  3. How has social media become the force multiplier?
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