Yojana Gist for April 2020 - UPSC and Govt Exam

Topic: Safeguarding Human Rights

What is the context?

  • Human rights are the rights which are possessed by every human being, irrespective of his or her nationality, race, religion, sex, etc., simply by virtue of being a human.
  • Human rights and fundamental freedom allow us to fully develop and use our human qualities to satisfy our physical, spiritual and other needs.
  • As these are indivisible and interdependent, equal attention and urgent consideration should be given to the implementation, promotion and protection of all the rights.

What is the background?

  • 1948: By Universal Declaration of Human Rights the nations of the world were specifically exhorted to act as the Guardians of human rights.
  • By 1966, the United Nations General Assembly adopted two important covenants.
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966and the Optional Protocol dealt with the rights of equality, personal liberty, freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention, freedom from rendering compulsory personal service, freedom of expression and conscience, right to participate in the administration of the country etc.
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 deals with the right to work, the right to fair wages, the right to collective bargaining, the right to carry on trade or profession, the right to establish institutions to conserve culture etc.

What are the challenges and issues?

India‘s socio-economic cultural framework and its colonial past have sprung many challenges in its efforts to promote and protect human rights. The main issues where majority of human rights violations in India take place are:

  • Failure in taking action by the police ,Unlawful detention, False implication, Custodial violence, Illegal arrest, Custodial deaths, Encounter deaths, Harassment of prisoners; jail conditions.
  • Atrocities on SCs and STs, Bonded labour;
  • Child labour Child marriage,
  • Communal violence.
  • Dowry death or its attempt; dowry demand,
  • Sexual harassment and indignity to women,
  • Exploitation of women.
  • Discrimination against persons with disabilities,
  • Discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS,
  • Discrimination against sex workers etc.

What are the provisions in Indian Constitution regarding Human Rights?

  • Long before these international covenants came into force, the Indian Constitution has guaranteed several rights for its citizens which are known as fundamental rights as enshrined in Part III of the Constitution.
  • The Constitution safeguards all citizens, individually and collectively, human rights by protecting basic freedoms.
  • These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental Rights, which are justiciable.
  • Over the years, human rights jurisprudence has developed allowing the judiciary the power of judicial review of all legislation in India.
  • The main object is to secure the paramountcy of the Constitution in regard to fundamental rights which represent the basic human rights of the people.
  • This is done by prohibiting the State from making a law which either takes away or abrogates the part of fundamental rights totally.

What are the case studies?

Gender Equality:

  • In the case of National Legal Services Authority v. Union of India, the Supreme Court of India declared transgender people to be a ̳third gender‘ and affirmed that the fundamental rights granted under the Constitution of India will be equally applicable to transgender people.
  • The Apex Court directed the Centre and the State governments to take steps to treat them as socially and educationally backward classes and to extend reservation in case of admission in educational institutions and for public appointments.

Privacy and Individual Autonomy:

  • The Supreme Court in Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India gave a historic and unanimous decision on Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, decriminalising homosexuality.
  • The Apex Court ruled that sexual orientation is an intrinsic element of liberty, dignity, privacy, individual autonomy and equality, and that intimacy between consenting adults of the same-sex, is beyond the legitimate interests of the state.

What is National Human Rights Commission?

  • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October, 1993.
  • The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 as amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.
  • It is in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991, and it endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations by its Regulations 48/134 of 20 December, 1993.
  • The NHRC is an embodiment of India‘s concern for the promotion and protection of human rights.
  • Section 2(1) (d) of the PHRA defines Human Rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India.

What are the functions of NHRC?

  • To promote and protect human rights.
  • To review the safeguard provided by or under any enactment for the protection of human rights.
  • To review the factors or difficulties that inhibits the enjoyment of human rights.
  • To submit to the Minister any opinion, recommendation, proposal or report on any matter concerning the promotion and protection of human rights.
  • To prepare reports on the national situation with regard to human rights in general, and on more specific matters.
  • To promote and ensure the harmonisation of national legislation and practices with the international human rights instruments and their effective implementation.
  • To cooperate with the United Nations and any other organisation in the United Nations system, the regional institutions and the national institutions of other countries that is competent in the areas of the protection and promotion of human rights.
  • To assist in the formulation of programmes for the teaching of, and research into, human rights and take part in their execution in schools, universities and professional circles.
  • To publicise human rights and efforts to combat all forms of discrimination by increasing public awareness, especially through information and education and by making use of all press organs.
  • To exercise such other functions as it may consider to be conducive to the promotion and protection of human rights.
  • To carry out an enquiry as to whether a case where a person who believes that he has been unjustly convicted. Should not be reviewed by the Supreme Court.

What are the recent innovations by NHRC?

  • Online complaint registration through HRCNet portal,
  • Provision for the authorities to upload the reports directly on the HRCNet portal,
  • Taking on board the SHRCs in the HRCNet portal to avoid duplication of cases,
  • Conducting video conferencing with the States to follow up the submission of reports,
  • Involving around three lakhs common Service Centres for registration of complaints,
  • Revamping the website where the status and all the orders of the cases are uploaded and A dedicated MADAD counter which assists the complainants in filing complaints.

Conclusion

  • India has robust constitutional provisions to safeguard the human rights of the common man.
  • The Executive, Legislature, Judiciary and the autonomous institutions like NHRC etc. are all pillars to build a social framework where human rights are ensured to all.
  • There are challenges but they can be met with the concerted efforts of all.
  • It is also very important to understand that rights are best safeguarded when we perform our duties.

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Topic: Fundamental Duties

What is the context?

  • Indian Constitution is built on the foundations of certain fundamental values that have been embedded in it by the makers to ensure that there should be fairness and justice for every citizen of India.
  • The inclusion of the Fundamental Rights in the Constitution is in furtherance of the same thought.
  • The object is to ensure the inviolability of certain essential rights against political vicissitudes.

What are the political vicissitudes?

  • Lot of restraint is required while exercising this freedom.
  • Absolute freedom is an illusion and cannot survive alone.
  • Fundamental rights need to be paired with fundamental duties.

What is the purpose of the duties?

  • Nation is made by its citizens.
  • Mahatma Gandhi believed that the true source of right is duty.
  • If every individual performs ones duty, the rights of the others will be protected.
  • The fundamental duties are a constant reminder to every citizen that while the Constitution confers upon them certain fundamental rights, it also expects its citizens to observe certain basic norms of democratic behaviour.

What are the Fundamental Duties?

  • Fundamental duties are the mechanism that aims at striking a balance between individual freedom and social interests.
  • These duties do not cast any public duties but are applicable only to individual citizens.
  • However, in a judgment, the Supreme Court held that the Fundamental Duties are as important as Fundamental Rights and that though Article 51A does not expressly cast any fundamental duty on the State, the duty of every citizen of India is the collective duty of the state.
  • There is no provision for enforcement of the Fundamental Duties, nor there do any sanction for the violation of the duties under the Constitution.
  • These duties are obligatory in nature.
  • However Indian Penal Code, 1860 which punishes for the act done against the sovereignty and integrity of the State.

What are the issues and initiatives?

  • Due to lack of awareness and sensitivity towards principles enshrined in the constitution and the well-crafted laws enacted after India‘s independence could not percolate and be made part and parcel of the lives of the people at large.
  • In 1999, the Justice Verma committee had suggested ways and means to make fundamental duties more effective.
  • Constitution (Forty-Second) Amendment Act, 1976 was introduced on the basis of Swaran Singh Committee report to offset the increasing tendencies of indifference towards the business of the government amongst its citizens and to check fissiparous growth.

Conclusion

  • Fundamental duties are a constant reminder to every citizen that while the Constitution confers upon them certain fundamental rights, it also expects its citizens to observe certain basic norms of democratic behaviour.
  • Various current crises related to environment, mob-violence and terrorism etc. could have been regulated to a large extent if a right balance can be maintained between the rights and the duties.
  • Every step has to be taken for awareness, inculcation and implementation of the Fundamental Duties.

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Topic: History of Indian Constitution

What is the context?

  • The Constituent Assembly of India came into existence as per the provisions of Cabinet Mission Plan of May 1946 to facilitate transfer of sovereign power from British authorities to Indian hands.
  • The Assembly was to have proportional representation from existing provincial legislatures and from various princely states.

What are the highlights of the Constituent Assembly?

  • The elections were completed by the end of 1946 under the supervision of Reforms Office under the Governor General.
  • The members of Provincial Assemblies indirectly elected the members of the Constituent Assembly.
  • This Assembly served as the first Parliament of India.
  • It first met on 9 December, 1946 in Delhi and historical journey was started which saw India attaining independence, deciding on its national flag, national insignia and national anthem.
  • After independence, the Assembly elected Dr. Rajendra Prasad as its Chairman while V.T. Krishnamachari and H.C. Mookerji served as Vice-Chairmen. H.V.R Iyengar was the Secretary General of the Assembly and S.N. Mukerji was the Chief Draftsman.
  • Exercise for drafting of the Constitution was started with Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee who is often called the father of the Indian Constitution.
  • The Constituent Assembly also took help from many non-members in the formulation of the Constitution.
  • Eminent public figures outside the Assembly were requested to work as members of the committees formed by the Assembly for focused deliberations on specific features from time to time.

How was the Constitution adopted?

  • A Special Committee was also constituted to decide on the future course of action after receiving the comments of the Draft Constitution in February 1948.
  • Thirty two members attended the meeting of Special Committee on 10-11 April, 1948 chaired by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • After more than two years of deliberations, the Constituent Assembly finally approved the Constitution on 26 November, 1949, which is now celebrated as Constitution Day.
  • The Constituent Assembly formally adopted the Constitution on 26 January, 1950 to make our country a Sovereign Republic.
  • There seems to be no resolution for the constitution of this special committee and; how and why this committee of great importance.

What was the first Constitutional Amendment?

  • Legitimacy of the parliament to amend the constitution could not be doubted.
  • Under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act of 1947, the constituent assembly was empowered to sit in a legislative capacity until the new constitution came into force and to exercise its powers.
  • The question of Amendment has some basic aspects:
    • Power of the Parliament to overturn a judgment passed by the Supreme Court.
    • The merits of the suggested changes.

What are the burning issues?

  • The citizen‘s right to freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by article 19(1) (a).
  • The citizen‘s right to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business conferred by article 19(1) (g) is subject to reasonable restrictions.
  • Article 31. The validity of agrarian reform measures passed by the State Legislatures in the last three years has, in spite of the provisions of clauses (4) and (6) of article 31, formed the subject-matter of dilatory litigation.

What are the amendments?

  • The formal title of the amendment is the Constitution (First Amendment) Act, 1951.
  • It was moved by the then Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, on 10 May 1951 and enacted by Parliament on 18 June 1951.
  • The First Amendment Act amended articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342,372 and 376.
  • It inserted articles 31A and 31B.
  • The Ninth schedule to the constitution was also added in this amendment vide Article 31B.

What are the Fundamental Rights?

  • There were 7 groups of rights guaranteed under the constitution.
  • These were: Right to Equality; Right to Freedom; Right to Property; Right against Exploitation; Right to Freedom of Religion; Cultural and Educational Rights and Right to Constitutional Remedies.
  • However, vide the 44th Constitutional Amendment (1978) Right to Property was taken away from the list of
  • Fundamental rights and placed in a new Article 300A as an ordinary legal right and thus currently there only 6 groups of rights exist.
  • Any law included in the Ninth Schedule was protected from judicial review, even if it was unconstitutional and violating Fundamental Rights.
  • This protects around 282 laws enabling nationalization, currency controls, price and quantity controls, and even the excesses of the Emergency.

Conclusion

  • Very few amendments to our constitution have had such wide ranging effect on the common man as the First Amendment.
  • For this reason, it shall always be much discussed, deliberated and continue to be applied or adapted according to the felt necessities of the time.

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Topic: Indian Parliament

What is the context?

Parliament plays a central role in the Indian system of representative governance, affecting all aspects of lives of citizens. Parliament has four main roles—it makes laws, it holds the executive to account for its actions, it allocates government finances, and represents the interests and aspirations of citizens. It is also a constituent body in the Sense that it can amend the Constitution.

What is the background?

  • Over the years, the Parliament has been meeting for a fewer days.
  • Number of sitting days has declined from 125-140 in the 1950s to about 70 days in the last twenty years.
  • It has negative impacts.
  • For Example: If the House is disrupted, it often sits late or through the lunch hour to make up for lost time. However, the time lost in Question Hour is never made up.
  • As a result, only a few questions listed for oral answers are actually answered on the floor, and the rest get a written reply.

What are the areas of reform?

There are some structural issues that need to be addressed to improve the effectiveness of Parliament. These include the repeal of the anti- defection law, recording all votes on bills and major debates, referring all bills to committees and strengthening the support system for committees.

  • Anti-Defection Law :
    • Tenth Schedule of the Constitution was added in 1985 through the fifty second amendment. In brief, it provides for the disqualification of an MP if he defects from his party or if he does not vote in accordance with the whip issued by his party.
    • Effectively, this gives control to the party leadership over the votes of all its members.
    • Any member who disobeys the party diktat would lose his seat and there would be by-elections.
  • Recorded Voting:
    • In our Parliament, most Bills and motions are passed by voice votes.
    • That is, the Speaker asks the members supporting a motion to say ―aye‖, and then those opposing to say ―no‖, and then he/she judges which side has more voices.
    • The votes of individual members are recorded (called a division) only if any MP demands so.
    • The exception is for bills that amend the Constitution.
    • As a result, only a few bills or motions go through a division shows the number of bills that recorded votes.
    • This implies that voters cannot question their MPs on their voting behaviour.
    • The importance can be gleaned from some rare instances when votes were recorded.
  • Committee system:
    • Parliament has constituted several committees, each typically having 20-35 members, to scrutinise various issues and make recommendations to the full House.
    • During the process of examination of any issue, committees often engage with experts and stakeholders to understand issues from different perspectives.
    • This enables Parliament to access external expertise and also to understand the concerns of people who may be impacted by an issue or a bill.
    • The committee system also enables MPs to negotiate across conflicting priorities and positions.
  • Financial Committees:
    • There are three financial committees.
    • The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) examines the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) on the working of various Ministries, considers the responses of the officials, and makes its recommendations.
    • The Committee on Public Undertakings (COPU) performs a similar role with respect to public sector enterprises.
    • The Estimates Committee looks at whether funds were allocated efficiently for various priorities.
    • The PAC is chaired by a senior member of the opposition.
  • Departmentally Related Standing Committees:
    • The Parliament has constituted 24 such committees, each of which examines the functioning of a set of Ministries and departments.
    • They examine bills that are referred to them, demand for grants of the departments, and various subjects that fall within the jurisdiction of the respective ministry.
    • The decision to send a bill to a committee is made by the Speaker of Lok Sabha or Chairman of Rajya Sabha in consultation with the Government.
    • The percentage of bills referred to committees has declined in recent years.
  • Committee on Subordinate Legislation:
    • While Parliament passes a bill into an Act, it often delegates details to be laid out by the Government through rules or statutory bodies through regulations.
    • Committee on subordinate legislation examines rules and regulations to ensure that they follow the legislative intent in letter and spirit.

Conclusion

  • There is a need to strengthen the working of parliamentary committees.
  • They do not have expert research staff to assist the members.
  • Often important bills are not referred to these committees; it may be time to revisit parliamentary processes to make this a mandatory step.
  • There are ways in which its effectiveness can be improved.
  • These include revocation of the anti-defection law, making recorded voting mandatory and strengthening the committee system.

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Topic: Panchayati Raj System

What is the context?

Constituent Assembly preferred two-tier system of governance. It may be explained as India‘s resources at the time of independence was to be spent on developing global status of India and to solve the national problems such as providing food, shelter and clothing, health etc., of the public, rather than strengthening and reengineering the villages.  However, after independence and adoption of the Constitution of India, Community Development projects were inaugurated in 1952 in line with the experiments at Santiniketan, Vadodara and Nilokheri.

What is the background?

  • National Development Council was established on the basis of the principle of democratic decentralisation, which spread the word ̳Panchayati Raj‘into the main frame of discussion about the rural development.
  • First three-tier Panchayati Raj system was inaugurated on 2 October1959 in Nagaur, Rajasthan.
  • The Jayaprakash Narayan Committee further strengthened the idea of Panchayati Raj and the Ministry of Community Development was brought under the Ministry of Food and Agriculture in 1971 and the word ̳Community Development‘ was replaced with the  ̳Rural Development‘.
  • Ashok Mehta Committee in 1978 recommended for introducing the Panchayati Raj as a Constitutional institution through an amendment. West Bengal Panchayat Act, 1973 brought direct elections at regular intervals as a compulsory provision, and deleted the discretionary power of the State in postponing the elections.
  • 64th Amendment Bill: It was introduced stating that, ―Panchayat Raj is an important facet of democracy and its constitutional protection is must for their functioning as representative institutions of the people.
  • 65th Amendment Bill that sought to endow urban local bodies in similar lines of Panchayat Raj.

How was the PRI introduced?


  • Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1993: In the year 1992-93, 73rd and the 74th amendments were brought into the Indian Constitution which recognised local self-governance as the third stratum of government.
  • It introduced direct elections for Panchayats, reservation of seats for the SCs and STs in proportion to their population for membership of Panchayats and office of Chairpersons;
  1. Reservation of not less than one-third of the seats for women
  2. Fixed tenure of five years for Panchayats and holding of elections within a period of six months on the eve of suppression of any Panchayats.
  3. Disqualification of membership of Panchayat
  4. Devolution of the State Legislature‘s powers over Panchayats with respect of economic development and social justice
  5. Created financial powers for the Panchayats through grants-in- aid from the consolidated fund of State.
  6. Assignment to Panchayats by State or appropriation of revenues by Panchayats of designated taxes, duties, tolls and fee, setting of finance commission etc.

What are the impacts?

  • Nagaur district of Rajasthan followed by Andhra Pradesh conducted the first elections for Panchayat Raj.
  • The incorporation of Panchayat Raj system into the constitutional framework brought the disadvantages section of population into the mainstream social and political empowerment through 2.4 lakh Panchayats and2.8 million elected representatives.
  • The digitalisation process of Gram Panchayats brought in transparency and good governance principles into the Panchayati Raj system.
  • Ombudsman, Social Audit, Model Accounting System, Panchayat Performance Assessment initiatives were introduced to develop discipline and progress within the institution.
  • Job creation policies like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) was introduced which mandates Panchayats as the planning and implementing agency.
  • Backward Region Grant Fund (BRGF) has been introduced as a financial backup for the Panchayats for promoting decentralisation, bridging critical gaps in the development and implementation of schemes and to build capacity of the Panchayats.
  • 13th Central Finance Commission award has brought radical changes in the Panchayat Raj System by devolving a share of the divisible tax pool for panchayats, by granting them defacto recognition as third tier of governance.

What is the way forward?

Despite the progress the Panchayati Raj system made in last 17 years, since 1993, there are many agendas, which are yet to be implemented. For example:

  • Providing sufficient staff, office space and infrastructure.
  • Allocating funds sufficient for carrying out the objectives of the Panchayati Raj Institutions.
  • Implementing the Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA) to address the demands of the tribal population living in rural areas.
  • Urgent need of the effective functioning of the State Finance Commission with a priority of sustenance of PRIs.
  • Special focus to be laid down on North Eastern States, 6th Schedule Areas.
  • Focusing more on the effective functioning of Gram Sabhas.

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Topic: Foreign Relations and Indian Constitution

What is the context?

The Constitution of India lays down clearly the bases on which foreign policy should be framed and respected. The basic thrust of Article 51 is to maintain international peace and security, international relations and international obligations, matters which, under the Indian Constitution, fall exclusively within the domain of the Union.

What is the Background?

  • Globalisation has resulted in the widening and deepening of systemic interdependencies amongst nations and that‘s why today no country in the world can afford to ignore the basic tenets of international law.
  • This goal necessitates finding common approaches to counter problems of terrorism, human rights, environmental degradation, international trade and utilisation of natural resources beyond national jurisdictions.
  • Thus, in the 21st century the importance of international law has increased manifolds.
  • India plays a pivotal role in the treaty-making process and ensuring that the concerns of poor and developing nations are protected.

What is the relation between Indian Judiciary and International law?

  • Article 51(c) does not deviate from the well-established principle that every State is bound by the principles of international law.
  • Obligations arising from treaties are not judicially enforceable in India unless backed by legislation.
  • However, a number of judgments have shown that there is no need to incorporate a treaty into law if its implementation is possible at the administrative level and without legislative endorsement.
  • Supreme Court has time and again made it clear that the rules of international law must be incorporated into the national law, even without legislation, provided they do not conflict with acts of Parliament.
  • The adoption by the Supreme Court of the doctrine of incorporation also covered states of the Union so that the Covenant could be implemented throughout the entire country provided there was no conflict with the domestic law.
  • However, Parliament retained the ultimate jurisdiction over international law.

Conclusion

Indian constitutional system is based on a strong commitment to democratic values including human rights. It is pertinent to highlight that the principle of human rights had evolved gradually during India‘s struggle for freedom, and in the articulation and elaboration of the foreign policy of India.

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Topic: Gender Rights

What is the context?

The principles of the Constitution enshrined in the Preamble guarantees social equality, assures social justice and promotes the dignity of the women. Despite constitutional safeguards and international commitments, the India‘s commitments were criticised at the international platform for lack of sincere efforts, effective legal frameworks, delays in disposal of cases relating to atrocities on women, lack of security and protection mechanisms etc.

What are the goals for Gender Equality in India?

  • Advancement, development and empowerment of women,
  • Creative conducive and protective environment for women through political, social and economic policies.
  • De jure and de facto guarantee of enjoyment of fundamental rights for women,
  • Equal access to development, employment and empowerment for women,
  • Strengthening legal and administrative systems.
  • To eliminate all forms of discrimination and crimes against women,
  • Social re-engineering to do away with the discriminatory and derogatory practices prevalent in India,
  • Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the girl child and,
  • Encouraging women to enter into all fields of employment and commerce.

What are the Constitutional Provisions?

  • Preamble: Socialism, equal distribution of opportunities and resources, social justice, assuring the dignity of the individual,
  • Article 14: Equality before law and equal protection of laws,
  • Article 15(1): Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sex.
  • Article 15(3): Empowering State to make special provisions for women and children,
  • Article 16(2): Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment; prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sex,
  • Article 38: State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people with social justice and equal opportunities,
  • Article 39(a): Secure, men and women equally, the right to an adequate means of livelihood,
  • Article 39A: Equal justice and free legal aid,
  • Article 42: Just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
  • Article 51A(e): Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women,
  • Articles 243D (3) & (4) 243T (3) & (4): Reservation of seats for women candidates in Panchayats and Municipalities.

What are the government initiatives?

  • Pan India - Emergency Response Support System (ERSS), Single internationally recognized number – 112 for all emergencies with artificial intelligence to identify the location of distress, National Policy for the Empowerment of Women 2001,Technology based smart policing and safety management, Cyber-crime reporting portal specific to women and children to report obscene content,National Database of Sexual Offenders (launched on 20th September 2018) for facilitating the investigation and tracking the habitual sexual offenders.
  • ̳Investigation Tracking System for Sexual Offences (ITSSO)‘ was launched to monitor and track time-bound investigation of sexual assault cases according to Criminal law (Amendment) Act, 2018,
  • Over 700 One Stop Centres were approved and 595 are fully functional pan India exclusively designed to provide medical aid, police assistance, legal and psycho-social counselling, court case management, temporary shelter for survivors of sexual offences.
  • Government of India has introduced Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao initiative to create awareness about the importance of female in the society and save and empower them with education.
  • Government has also introduced National Youth Policy 2014 with well-defined objectives and eleven priority areas suggesting policy intervention at each stage.

What is the way forward?

  • Pan India - Emergency Response Support System (ERSS), Single internationally recognized number – 112 for all emergencies with artificial intelligence to identify the location of distress, National Policy for the Empowerment of Women 2001,Technology based smart policing and safety management, Cyber-crime reporting portal specific to women and children to report obscene content,National Database of Sexual Offenders (launched on 20th September 2018) for facilitating the investigation and tracking the habitual sexual offenders.
  • ̳Investigation Tracking System for Sexual Offences (ITSSO)‘ was launched to monitor and track time-bound investigation of sexual assault cases according to Criminal law (Amendment) Act, 2018,
  • Over 700 One Stop Centres were approved and 595 are fully functional pan India exclusively designed to provide medical aid, police assistance, legal and psycho-social counselling, court case management, temporary shelter for survivors of sexual offences.
  • Government of India has introduced Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao initiative to create awareness about the importance of female in the society and save and empower them with education.
  • Government has also introduced National Youth Policy 2014 with well-defined objectives and eleven priority areas suggesting policy intervention at each stage.

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Questions for Prelims

  1. Consider the following statements:
    1. The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October, 1993.
    2. It is in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991.

Which of the above are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Neither 1 nor 2
  4. Both 1 and 2

Solution: C

  1. Choose the correct pairs:

Sl No

Committee

Subject

1

Justice Verma committee

Sexual Harassment at Workplace Act

2

Swaran Singh Committee

Fundamental Rights

Which of the above are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Neither 1 nor 2
  4. Both 1 and 2

Solution: A

Questions for Mains

  1. Fundamental duties are a constant reminder to every citizen that while the Constitution confers upon them certain fundamental rights. Comment.
  2. Parliament plays a central role in the Indian system of representative governance, affecting all aspects of lives of citizens. Elucidate.
  3. How has the PRIs helped in strengthening democracy in India?

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