Geography Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 6 - Question 3

90 Days Geography Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 19-Dec-2018

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.


2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

19-Dec-2018 - Question 1

Discuss the changing composition of international trade through major seaports of India. 200 words (2018)

For Question 2 - Click Here

Model Answer

India has a long coastline of 7516.6 km that is dotted with 13 major and over 200 minor ports. These ports carry nearly 95% of India’s trade by volume.

  1. The composition of commodities in India’s international trade has been undergoing a change over the years with the share of petroleum,  crude oil and other commodities rising and that of agricultural products decreasing.
  2. The growth of manufacturing industries and SEZs near ports, for example, the vehicle manufacturing industry in Chennai has modified the trade carried out through the port as Chennai is now used to export manufactured vehicles to South and South-East Asia.
  3. As demand for high value agri-produce rises worldwide, horticulture and floriculture products along with marine produce has seen an increase in their export.
  4. Operationalization of National Waterway 1 recently allows for internal movement of high volume of goods from Haldia and Kolkata allowing these ports to feed the demand for manufactured imported goods in the region. This is marking a shift in trade through these ports.
  5. Ports like Marmagao have seen decrease in trade in iron ore and increase in other commodities as production of the ore has been affected.


These developments can be seen by observing  the major exports and imports from each of the major ports:



Export items include cotton textiles, leather, tobacco, manganese machinery, chemicals etc while import include crude oil, raw cotton, machinery and drugs.

Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT)

Item basket for exports and imports similar to Mumbai as the hinterland is same.


It includes trade in crude oil, petroleum products, fertilizers, food grains, salt, cotton, cement, sugar, edible oils and scrap.


It is important for export of iron ore from Goa and also trades in manganese, coconut and other nuts, cotton etc.

New Mangalore

Agricultural produce, iron ore, granite are major exports, crude oil, coal, iron ore , LPG, limestone, wooden logs, cement, liquid chemicals, fertilizers, edible oils are major imports.


Trade items include tea, coffee, spices, mineral oil and fertilizers


Jute, tea, coal, steel, iron ore, copper, leather, textiles, crude oil, paper, fertilizers etc. are major trade items.


Item basket is similar to Kolkata as they serve the same hinterland.


It mainly handles iron ore and other mineral trade


It exports ores of iron, manganese, spices and wood an imports mineral oil, coal, industrial products and luxury items


Its trade basket consists of agricultural produce, ores of manganese, cotton, paper, crude oil, coal, vehicles, machinery and fertilizers


The major items are coal, iron ore, petroleum and its products, chemicals etc.


It handles traffic in coal, salt, food grains, edible oils, sugar and petroleum products.


Thus, composition of international trade through the Indian ports is changing due to change in demand of the population and stage of the economy as it transits from an agrarian economy to a service and consumerist one.

Note: There is no template for a correct UPSC answer, the model answer is only for your reference

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