Geography Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 4 - Question 5

90 Days Geography Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 09-Dec-2018

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.


2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

09-Dec-2018 - Question 1

Land reform is a key to modern agriculture in India. Describe various measures taken in this direction after Independence. 250 words (2017)

For Question 2 - Click Here

Model Answer

India is a primarily agrarian economy with nearly 49% of the population still dependent on agriculture for income and nearly 80% of the farmers are small and marginal farmers. Thus, land reform is a key institutional factor necessary for the transformation of modern agriculture in India. The various measures taken in direction after Independence include:

    1. Abolition of Intermediaries : The earlier system of intermediaries under the Zamindari, Ryotwari and Mahalwari systems set up by the British were removed and ownership rights were given to the tenants and sharecroppers. This led to the abolition of nearly 2,60,000 intermediaries and conferment of ownership rights of about 25 lakh hectares to the tillers.
    2. Tenancy Reforms: These have been implemented partially across the country and include - security of tenure for the tenants, fixation of fair rent and grant of ownership rights to certain kind of tenants. Varied ownership models exist across states with regard to the return of land to the owner after the end of tenancy period. Example, Operation Barga
    3. Ceiling on Landholdings: Restrictions were placed on the area of land that a particular farmer could hold based on the productivity of the land and the excess land was distributed among the landless labourers to meet their demand for land.
    4. Consolidation of Holdings: Recognizing the fact that land holdings in India are fragmented and small and these in turn lead to poor economic benefits to the landowners, land consolidation has been undertaken. Laws to this effect have been passed in 15 states.


  • Modernization of Land records: Land records are being modernized and computerized to ensure transparency and less litigation in courts.


Land reforms also form a part of various regional development initiatives as well as schemes for increasing agricultural productivity and efficiency. These reforms have seen varied success across the country due to several reasons such as political will, loopholes in the law, traditional inertia and cost of policy reform. These provisions need to be strengthened to achieve proper and just land reform in India.

Note: There is no template for a correct UPSC answer, the model answer is only for your reference

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