Geography Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 3 - Question 5
90 Days Geography Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 30-Nov-2018
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30-Nov-2018 - Question 1
Explain the origin, progress and retreat of the Indian monsoon and discuss its impact on Indian economy. 20 marks
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The Indian monsoon is considered the lifeline of the Indian economy. Its origin, progress and retreat can be seen as under:
The Indian monsoon originates due to thermal and dynamic factors over the Indian subcontinent and Indian Ocean. The northward movement of the ITCZ causes the South East trade winds to cross the equator and blow from the South West due to the Coriolis effect.
The intense heating of the Indian peninsula and the Tibetan plateau acts as a Low Pressure region attracting the South west trade winds. These winds carry moisture laden clouds picked up over the Indian Ocean region.
The Somali Low level Jet and the withdrawal of the Sub tropical south westerly jet from the base of the Himalayas also aid the formation and movement of the monsoon. The Tropical Easterly Jet is associated with the burst of the monsoon.
Moreover, the Indian Ocean Dipole, El Nino Southern Oscillation and Madden-Julien Oscillation all have varying effects on the intensity of the monsoon.
The monsoon reaches the Andaman and Nicobar islands by May 20th. Its advance is much faster in the bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea.
It reaches the Indian mainland on the first of June normally. Two branches of the monsoon process:
Arabian Sea branch : It advances northwards and is divided into three distinct streams. The first stream impinges on the west coast and causes heavy rainfall particularly between 10°N and 20°N on the Western Ghats. The second stream enters the Narmada and Tapi troughs and causes rainfall in central India. The third stream moves in a north eastern direction parallel to the Aravali range and thus does not cause a lot of rainfall in Rajasthan except on the south-eastern edge. It reaches Delhi and the surrounding areas.
Bay of Bengal Branch: It is divided into two distinct streams. The first stream crosses the Ganga- Brahmaputra delta and reaches Meghalaya. Here, they cause orographic rainfall making Mawsynram the wettest place on Earth. The second stream goes to the Himalayan foothills and after reaching there is deflected to the west where it causes rainfall on the Gangetic plain. Rainfall decreases north west wards
The two streams meet near Delhi and continue westwards. There are breaks in the monsoon during the rainy season. Also, depressions over the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea sustain and cause rainfall throughout the season.
The monsoon withdraws gradually from the north west by the second week of September and from the Coromandel coast by mid December. This is the season of most devastating cyclones
Impact on the Indian Economy
The monsoon rainfall is essential for agriculture 60% of which is still rain-fed. Thus it ensures food security for the country as well as income security for the farmers
Monsoons also help replenish the waters of the peninsular rivers helping in irrigation as well as household use and navigation.
The cycle of economic activity it spurs affects other sectors such as machinery and automobiles along with consumer demand rise or fall.
It affects policy rates set by the RBI and fiscal policy of the government.
Disasters such as floods, droughts and cyclones cause adverse affects to economy and life of the people.
It has a positive impact on energy generation from hydro power adding to economic growth
Thus the monsoon is essential for the economic sustenance of the country.