General Studies Geography For UPSC
Geography is one of the most important section of the General studies paper in UPSC CSE prelims as well as mains exam.The GS paper 1 of UPSC Mains has more than 50 % of questions from Geography.Also, In UPSC prelims about 10 - 15 questions are asked from Geography syllabus.So you can easily understand the importance of Geography in UPSC exam.
Geography - An overview
Geography is a practical subject. You can easily understand its day to day application in knowing about your surrounding environment or the weather phenomenon taking place in your area. As an administrator geography is very helpful to know the area that comes under your jurisdiction. The problems that are inherent in the area due to its geographical peculiarity and how you can address those problems without compromising the environmental balance.
The scope of Geography is vast and it is a multi - dimensional subject.However, the syllabus of General Studies Geography is limited and can be covered in 1.5 to 2 months.The syllabus contains fundamental topics of general geography and then most of the topics are India specific as for an IAS officer India specific geographical knowledge is important in their day to day administration.
Geomorphology gives basic knowledge about the various Geophysical phenomenon on the surface of the earth.The knowledge about the formation of mountains, Volcanoes, earthquake, Hotspots etc.The knowledge about various types of landforms and the mechanism behind their formation.
|Topics Covered Under Geomorphology|
|Interior of Earth||Block Mountain|
|Exogenetic Earth Movements||Volcanic Landforms – Extrusive, Intrusive|
|Continental Drift Theory||Volcanism Types Based on Out Flow of Lava|
|See Floor Spreading – Paleomagnetism||Pseudo Volcanic features|
|Plate Tectonics||Hotspot Volcanism|
|Classification of Mountains||Rocks and types of Rock|
|Fold Mountain||Lake – Classification of Lakes|
Climatology deals with the phenomenon in our atmosphere. The Mechanism behind the atmospheric events, the forces involved in accomplishing weather events such as cyclones, thunderstorm, drought etc. It helps us understand the reason behind the climatic condition of a place and the economic activity of the region.
Oceanography is the science of Ocean. It deals with the geographical features inside the ocean, the nature of ocean currents and its effect on the coastal climate and other atmospheric events in the coastal regions. The phenomenon of Tide, wave and its associated landforms etc.
Indian Physiography deals with the Geophysical features in India and how these geophysical features have originated. It deals with the mountains, hills, plains and its characteristics features. How these features have developed over the years.
Environmental Geography deals with the interaction of human and environment. It studies the impact human-environment interaction by assessing the human activity on landforms, natural resources, bio-geochemical cycles etc.
On the surface of the earth, various agents of denudation are continuously involved in weathering, mass movement, erosion and deposition of the weathered material. These series of activity gives rise to various landforms depending upon the agent of gradation. In geographic landforms, we study these landforms and the process involved in their formation.
|Different Types of Landforms|
|Fluvial Erosional Landforms||Marine Landforms|
|Fluvial Depositional Landforms||Arid Landforms|
|Glacial Landforms||Karst Landforms|
Indian River System
In this section, we will study about the Indian rivers. Their classifications such as Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers, East flowing rivers, west flowing rivers. The tributaries and distributaries of the major river systems. The origin and the watershed of the major Indian rivers.
|Topics Covered Under Indian River Systems|
|The Indus River System||Major Peninsular River|
|The Ganga river system||Minor Peninsular River|
|The Brahmaputra river system||West Flowing Rivers|
|The Peninsular River System|
Monsoon is the most important atmospheric event in India. Indian Agriculture is heavily dependent on the monsoon rain which in turn impacts the economic activity in the nation. In this section, we will study the mechanism behind the formation of monsoon wind. Various features of monsoon, its distribution in the country and how El-Nino and La-Nina impact monsoon in India.
Soil of India
India is a country of sub-continental dimension as such there are a variety of soil types found in the country. The type of soil influence the economic activity in an area. In this section, we will study the different type of soil, their characteristic features, the distribution of soil types in India etc.