GATE 2018 was conducted by IIT Guwahati across cities to test candidates on the comprehensive understanding of their undergraduate subjects. The conducting body also releases its syllabus which the prospective candidates are advised to get a thorough knowledge of before appearing for the exam.

## GATE Syllabus 2019 Electronics & Communications (ECE)

The paper code for Electronics and Communications Engineering in GATE is EC and based on the GATE 2018 syllabus for ECE. IIT Madras had released the GATE 2019 syllabus for ECE.

### GATE 2019 Syllabus for ECE

The GATE syllabus for ECE is spread across 9 sections, with two sections dedicated to Engineering Mathematics and General Ability, and the other 7 dedicated to EC core subjects:

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, rank,

solution

of linear equations - existence and uniqueness.Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy s and Euler s equations, methods of solution using

variation

of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separation method, initial and boundary value problems.Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss s, Green

s and Stoke s

theorems.Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy s integral theorem, Cauchy s integral formula; Taylor s and Laurent s series, residue theorem.Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions - binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton s, maximum power transfer; Wye-Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2-port network parameters; driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.
Section 3: Electronic Devices Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin0tub CMOS process.
Section 4: Analog Circuits Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and op-amp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.
Section 5: Digital Circuits Number Systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Section 6: Control Systems Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equations of LTI systems.
Section 7: Communications Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.
Section 8: Electromagnetics Electrostatics; Maxwell s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth: Transmission lines; equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.
Section 9: General Aptitude Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

### Division of Marks

The division of marks in GATE 2019 ECE was spread across three sections namely, Engineering Mathematics, General Ability, and Electronics & Communications Engineering. The maximum weightage was reserved for the ECE core subjects, while the other two sections were allotted equal weightage.

Section Question number Number of Questions Sub-Total Negative Marking
Engineering Mathematics &Electronics and Communications Engineering Q.1 to Q.25 (25*1)Q.26 to Q.55 (30*2) 55 (25+30) 25 (25*1) + 60 (30*2) =85 for 1 mark questions and for 2 marks questions
General Aptitude (GA) Q.56 to Q.60 (5*1)Q.60 to Q.65 (5*2) 10 (5+5) 15 (5*1+5*2) for 1 mark questions and for 2 marks questions
Total Q.1 to Q.65 65 100

### Section-wise preparation tips for GATE ECE

Developing a section-wise approach while preparing for GATE ECE goes a long way in scoring a good rank in the exam. To help achieve that goal, here is a detailed approach that would give the students an idea about how to start preparation for each section:

#### Engineering Mathematics

Since Engineering Mathematics is a common subject across all the branches, hence it is easy to get an idea of the difficulty level of this section by going through the last years question papers. By doing this, students will get an idea about the frequently asked topics and can focus on those the most. Most commonly asked topics in Engineering Mathematics in GATE 2019 ECE were probability, vector, matrices, first-degree and second-degree differential equations, and complex numbers.

#### Networks, Signals, and Systems

This section is relatively easier to score as compared to other sections in the ECE syllabus. Before students start preparing Signals and Systems, they need to develop a strong understanding of the concepts of differentiation, integration, differential equations, series, and progressions. It is also important for students to solve as many problems as they can as it is easy to score well in numerical problems of this section. For practise, students can refer to Signals and Systems by Alan V. Oppenheim.

#### Electronic Devices

Since electronic devices is a numerical and formula-based subject, hence it is important to keep practising numericals from this section from time-to-time to refresh one s memory of the key concepts. Being a numerically inclined topic, it wouldn t do well to dwell too much on the theory, so spend just enough time on the theory section to help grasp the basic concepts. Making regular notes of the formulae used in solving questions and solving them frequently will help students a long way. For practice questions, students can also refer to Kanodia MCQ Book.

#### Analog Circuits

To start with, it is important to develop an understanding of the basic working of devices like BJT, MOSFET, FET, and diode. Also, the knowledge about applied terminal voltage for different modes of operation, the direction of current flow, and basic terminals is imperative to solve numerical problems. Clipper and clamper are the most frequently asked topics, so a good practice of these questions will help score great marks in this section. It is also important to thoroughly practice various diode circuits to avoid confusion. Some other important topics are Operational amplifier, Feedback amplifier, topology and its effect on output and input impedances, Op-amp, filter design, and Schmitt trigger.

#### Digital Circuits

One of the easiest sections of the GATE ECE syllabus, Digital Circuits can fetch the candidate 100% marks if practised thoroughly. To start with, candidates should practise the logic circuits and truth tables of all the logic gates, and then practice making logic gates from functions. An extensive understanding and practice of the K-map is necessary as it is used in questions about looping zeroes and inverting functions. Basic knowledge of adder, subtractor, multiplexer, and demultiplexer, adder, and decoders is equally essential.

Sequential circuits are the most important and perhaps the trickiest topic of this chapter. Students can start preparing with S-R, D, T, and JK flip-flop as these are the core topics of sequential circuits. Students also need to practice how to convert one flip-flop into another along with circuit diagrams of synchronous counters, ripple counter, and Johnson counter.

#### Control Systems

One of the most critical topics of GATE ECE, a thorough understanding of this section is vital for scoring well in any competitive exam. As GATE focuses more on application-based problems, therefore it is vital to have a clear understanding of basic concepts of this section. Some important topics of this section are: open and closed loop systems, Laplace transforms, transfer functions, Routh s stability criterion, root locus, Bode plots, time response to 2nd order system, steady-state error, polar and Nyquist plots, lead and lag compensators, controllability and observability, PD, PI, and PID controller.

#### Communications

A broad subject on its own, students can start preparing the basics of analogue communications by preparing topics like AM, FM, PM, auto and cross-correlation, and noise. In digital communications, students can start baseband communication by preparing PAM, PPM, PCM and multiplexing techniques of FDM, TDM. Moving on to bandpass communication, begin preparations with ASK, FSK, PSK, QAM. Particular attention is to be placed on matched filter and probability error as these are the most robust topics of this section. Regular practice of previous years question papers can boost student confidence in solving problems from this topic. A relatively complex subject, it is also essential for the students to have a thorough understanding of Signals and Systems, Probability and Random Processes, and Control Systems before they start studying this section.

#### Electromagnetics

A difficult topic to grasp concepts of, it would be best if the students collate specific topics and focus on preparing them well. A good strategy of doing that would be to study previous years question papers and to then develop a list of the most frequently asked topics. Some important topics of this section are electrostatics, EM waves, transmission lines, waveguides and antennas, Maxwell s equations, and boundary conditions. Students can also refer to Principles of Electromagnetics by Matthew N.O. Sadiku.

#### General Aptitude

A potentially scoring section in the GATE exam, General Aptitude is divided into two parts: Verbal Ability and Numerical Ability. Students can refer to A Modern Approach to Verbal & Non-Verbal Reasoning by R.S. Aggarwal, and Quantitative Aptitude for Competitive Examinations by R.S. Aggarwal for this section. Developing a regular reading habit will help students to score well in the verbal reasoning. This section tests students on the topics of sentence completion, English grammar, instructions, word groups, verbal analogies, and critical reasoning and verbal deduction. For quantitative reasoning, students can expect questions on the topics of numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning, critical reasoning, and data interpretation. Some relevant topics of Numerical Ability and Number series, summation, cost-profit, speed-distance-time, logical inference, data interpretation, ages, work, modulo problems, velocity, clock problems, directions, geometry, probability, percentage, and base/radix numbers.

### Important Topics for GATE ECE

Preparation for a taxing exam like GATE becomes much easier if students can identify the topics they are supposed to focus on the most. Following is a list of important topics from each section so that you can cover the vital parts first and leave the rest for later:

#### Engineering Mathematics

Linear algebra, complex analysis, probability and statistics, calculus, and differential equations.

#### Network Theory

Network analysis using KCL and KVL, transient and steady state analysis of second order RLC circuits, network theorems, phasor diagrams, transient analysis of first order circuits, magnetic coupled circuits, resonance, two-port networks, and Laplace transforms.

#### Signals & Systems

Basics of signals and systems, convolution, LTI systems, DTFT, FFT, Fourier transform, digital filters, Fourier series (CT and DT), digital filters, and Z-transform.

#### Control Systems

Signal flow graphs, time domain specifications, Nyquist plots, Routh-Hurwitz criteria, frequency domain specifications, Bode plots, compensators, and state variable analysis.

#### Digital Electronics

Logic gates and their CMOS implementations, ADCs and DACs, Boolean algebra, counters, combinational circuits, minimisation of functions using K-map, data conversion circuits, memories, and sequential circuits.

#### Electronic Devices and Circuits

Semiconductor physics, semiconductors, special diodes, PN junction, VLSI fabrication, BJT, MOSFET, and CMOS.

#### Analog Circuits

Op-amp and diode circuits, feedback amplifiers, DC biasing, diode circuits, oscillators, small signal analysis of BJT and FET, and BJT and FET analysis circuits.

#### Communications

AM, FM, information theory, random processes, inter-symbol interference, and digital communications.

#### Electromagnetics

Electrostatics, antennas, waveguides, EM waves, basics of RADAR and optical fibres, transmission line, and antennas.

### Exam Pattern of GATE for ECE

Across all the sections of GATE 2019, the nature of questions was either Numerical Answer Type (NAT) or Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ), both of which carry 1 or 2 marks each. While there was no negative marking for wrong answers in NAT questions, MCQs however, have negative marking for an answer ticked wrong. For an MCQ carrying 1-mark, mark was deducted for the wrong choice, and for a wrong choice in a 2-mark MCQ, mark was deducted.

### Reference/Study Books

Following is a list of reference/study books students can refer to for efficient preparation of GATE for ECE. The links to purchase are given alongside:

### PSUs in ECE

A number of PSUs recruit candidates through GATE ECE. Below is a detailed list of the options candidates could pursue:

#### M.P. Power Generating Company Limited (MPPGCL)

Designation Assistant Engineer (Gen.)
No. of Vacancies 50
Qualification degree B.Tech in Mechanical, Electrical, and Electronics Engineering
Qualifying graduation marks 65% for GEN/OBCNo minimum marks for SC/ST candidates if they have M.P. domicile & have families rehabilitated as a consequence of land acquisition in Shri Singaji Thermal Power Project, Khandwa
Age Limit 40 years for GEN (and M.P. domicile)35 years for candidates other than M.P.45 years for SC/ST/OBC (Non-creamy)/ Ex-Servicemen/PD (Ortho & Hearing)/ R&R-SSTPP45 years for applicants working in Govt./P.S.U.
Application fee Rs. 1,118/- for GEN/OBCRs. 718/- for SC/ST/PD candidates having MP domicile

#### Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) & Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA)

Designation Scientist/Engineer B in ADA and Scientist B in DRDO
No. of Vacancies 11 for ADA53 for DRDO
Qualification degree B.Tech in Electronics & Communication/Electronics/Mechanical/Computer Science/Electrical/Electrical & Electronics/Aeronautical/Aerospace/Chemical/Instrumentation Engineering
Qualifying graduation marks Minimum aggregate of 60% or CGPA of 6.75
Age Limit For GEN:30 years ADA and 28 years for DRDO For OBC NCL:33 years for ADA and 31 years for DRDOFor SC/ST:35 years for ADA and 33 years for DRDO
Application fee Rs. 100/- for GEN

#### Airports Authority of India (AAI)

Designation Junior Executive
Qualification degree B.Tech in Electronics/Telecommunications/Electrical Engineering
Qualifying graduation marks 60% for GENPassing marks in GATE for SC/ST
Age Limit 27 years
Application fee Rs. 500/- for UR/BC/EBC

#### Electronics Corporation of India Limited

Designation Management Trainee
Qualification degree B.Tech in Mechanical, Civil, Electronics, and Electrical Engineering
Qualifying graduation marks 65% for GEN55% for SC/ST
Age Limit 25 years
Application fee Rs. 500/- for GEN/OBCSC/ST/PWD/Ex-Servicemen are exempted from paying any fee.

#### Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL):

Designation Officers
Qualification degree B.Tech in Electronics/Electronics & Communication/ Electronics & Telecommunication/ Applied Electronics
Qualifying graduation marks 60% for GEN/OBC50% for SC/ST
Age Limit 25 years for GENRelaxation as per government guidelines to other categories.
Application fee Rs. 275/- for UR/BC/EBC
Expected CTC Rs. 10.8 lakhs per annum

#### Indian Oil Corporation (IOCL)

Designation Officer
Qualification degree B.Tech in Electronics and Communications/Electronics/Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering
Qualifying graduation marks 65% for GEN/OBC (non-creamy)55% for SC/ST/PWD
Age Limit 26 years for GEN29 years for OBC31 years for SC/ST36 year for PWD
Application fee None
Expected CTC Rs. 12 lakhs

#### Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL)

Designation Scientific Officer C
Qualification degree B.Tech in Electronics/Electronics & Communication/Electronics & Telecommunications/Electronics & Controls/Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering
Age Limit 26 years for GEN/OBC
Application fee Rs. 500/- for male applicants from GEN/OBC

#### NLC India Limited (NLC):

Qualification degree B.Tech or AMIE in Electronics & Communication Engineering
Qualifying graduation marks 60% for GEN/OBC50% for SC/ST
Age Limit 30 years
Application fee Rs. 300/- for UR/BC/EBC
Expected CTC Rs. 9.05 lakhs to Rs. 9.65 lakhs per annum

#### National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC):

Designation Executive Trainee
Qualification degree B.Tech or AMIE in Engineering or Technology
Age Limit 37 years
Application fee Rs. 150/- for GEN/OBC

#### Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC)

Designation Assistant Executive Engineer
Qualification degree B.Tech in Electronics/Telecom/E&T
Age Limit 30 years for GEN33 years for OBC35 years for SC/ST

#### Power Grid Corporation of India (PGCIL):

Designation Executive Trainee
Qualification degree B.Tech in Civil/Electrical/Electronics Engineering
Age Limit 28 years for GENRelaxation as per government guidelines to other categories.
Application fee Rs. 500/- for GEN/OBC

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