Distribution Of Diamond And Graphite
- Diamond has been the most valuable among gems for more than 2,000 years.
- Diamond occurs in two types of deposits primarily in igneous rocks of basic or ultrabasic composition and in alluvial deposits derived from the primary sources.
- The high reflective Index of Dimond gives it exciting brilliance when cut as a faceted stone.
- Flawless stones of good colour are considered in gem trade while off colour, flawed and defective stones chips, small grains and dust are used in industry.
- Dimond is the hardest mineral in the world and so, the industrial variety of diamonds are used in grinding, drilling, cutting and as polishing tools.
Distribution of Diamond in the world
The world reserves of industrial diamond are about 700 million carats located mainly in Australia (31%), Congo (Kinshasa) (21%), Botswana (19%), South Africa (10%) and Russia (6%).
The principal producers of diamonds are Russia (31%), Botswana (20%), Congo Dem. Rep. (12%), Canada (10%), Australia & Angola (7% each) and South Africa (6%). The African continent contributes 50% of the production.
Russia: Russia has the largest and richest resource for Dimond. They are the largest producer and exporter of crude diamond.
Botswana: Botswana is the leading diamond-producing country in terms of value and the second largest in terms of volume. Botswana has seven diamond mines, important ones being, the Damtshaa, the Jwaneng, the Letlhakane and the Orapa Mines.
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is Africa's largest diamond producer. The DRC has a long history as a diamond mining country and is today the third largest diamond-producing country by volume. Most of the DRC's production is mined by the informal sector and not by mining companies.
Australia: Australia is the leading producer of colour diamonds. Australia is famous for its pink, purple and red diamonds, and an important producer of some of the finest yellow diamonds around. The largest diamond mine in Australia is Argyle mine. The other two mines in Australia are Ellendale and Merlin, the latter of which is in ramp-up stages.
Canada: Canada is one of the largest diamond-producing countries in the world. Canada has four active diamond mines: Diavik, Ekati, Snap Lake and Victor.
Diamond deposits in India
Till April 2013, all India resources of diamond were placed at around 31.86 million carats. By grades, about 2.37% resources are of Gem variety, 2.64% of Industrial variety and bulk of the resources (95%) are placed under the Unclassified category.
By States, the distribution of diamond deposits is as following
- Madhya Pradesh accounts for about 90.18% resources
- Andhra Pradesh 5.72%
- Chhattisgarh 4.09%
Diamond occurrences are reported since prehistoric times in the country. Presently, diamond fields of India are grouped into four regions:
- South Indian tract of Andhra Pradesh, comprising parts of Anantapur, Cuddapah, Guntur, Krishna, Mahabubnagar and Kurnool districts
- Central Indian tract of Madhya Pradesh, comprising Panna belt
- Behradin-Kodawali area in Raipur district and Tokapal, Dugapal, etc. areas in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh
- Eastern Indian tract mostly of Odisha, lying between Mahanadi and Godavari valleys.
In India, there is only one mine at Majhgaon in Panna (Madhya Pradesh) of NMDC for a production capacity of 84,000 carats and the total diamonds recovered from this mine so far are little more than 1 million carats.
Indian diamond industry
- Natural diamonds are cut in 52 countries.
- The major diamond cutting centres in the world are Antwerp in Belgium, Ramat Gan in Israel, New York in the USA, Surat in India and Guangzhou & Shenzhen in China.
- Indian Diamond Industry enjoys credible standing and reputation in the world market
- Indian diamond manufacturing standards are reckoned as the best in the world.
- India is known for its diamond cutting & polishing business, especially for small sized diamonds. Indian Diamond Industry handles 80% of the global polished diamond market.
- Surat in Gujarat is the main centre of the Cutting and Polishing Industry.
- India depends largely on imports of rough gem diamonds for its Cutting and Polishing Industry as there is no notable production except for one producer in Madhya Pradesh whose limited production is too sparse to meet the Cutting and Polishing Industry's requirements.
- The cut and polished diamonds are re-exported.
- Graphite, also known as plumbago or blacklead or mineral carbon, is a stable form of naturally occurring carbon.
- Natural graphite is categorised into two commercial varieties (i) crystalline (flaky) graphite and (ii) amorphous graphite.
- Both flaky and amorphous varieties of graphite are produced in India.
- The quality of graphite depends upon its physical qualities and carbon content.
- Graphite is used as a raw material in a large number of industries such as crucible, foundry facing, dry cell battery, lubricants, pencils and paints etc.
Distribution of graphite in the world
World reserves of graphite have been placed at 230 million tonnes of which Turkey accounts for 39% followed by Brazil, China, Mozambique and India.
In terms of production, China is the leading producer, with a share of about 85% which is followed by India (5%) and Brazil (4%).
Graphite deposits in India
India is the second largest producer of graphite in the world, preceded by China. The total resources of graphite in India, till April 2013 is placed at about 188.67 million tonnes.
By states, total Graphite resources are distributed in the following manner:-
- Arunachal Pradesh accounts for 39% of the total resources
- Jammu & Kashmir (33%),
- Odisha (10%), Jharkhand (9%)
- Tamil Nadu (4%).
However, in terms of reserves,
- Jharkhand has the leading share of about (52%)
- Tamil Nadu (41%)
- Odisha (6%)
Active mining centres of graphite are in
- Jharkhand - Latehar & Palamu districts
- Odisha - Bargarh, Nuapada, Rayagada & Balangir districts
- Tamil Nadu - Madurai & Sivagangai districts