The earth is a partially closed system, it receives external energy from the sun but the matter on the earth is almost constant.
The nutrients are vital for the growth of organisms and sustenance of life in the biosphere is derived by the interaction of matter and energy. The organic and inorganic matters move reversibly in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and Lithosphere through various cycles known as a Biogeochemical cycle.
Characteristics of the Biogeochemical Cycle
- As the necessary nutrients are provided by the soil and the roots of the phototrophic green plants play a major role in recycling of the nutrients these cycles are also known as Geochemical Cycle.
- Since the plant has a Major role to play in the cycling of nutrients these cycles are termed as a biogeochemical cycle.
- The elements which have been derived from the atmosphere and sediments are ultimately pooled into the soil.
- The processes like weathering and erosion of rocks are responsible for the pooling of nutrients into the soil in the sedimentary phase.
Nutrient Cycling as a part of Biogeochemical Cycle
- The regular exchange of the matter and nutrients between living and non-living world is known as Nutrient cycling.
- Nutrient Cycling is very important for the existence of life and ecology in any region.
The pattern of Biogeochemical cycle
As the nutrient passes through the various trophic levels, they get assimilated and these nutrients become the organic matter and get stored in the biotic reservoir. This organic element of plant and animal is generally released in the following ways to complete the cycle.
- Decomposition of plants, litter etc. The dead organic matter is decomposed by the saprophytes and these materials after decomposition get converted into an inorganic material which ultimately joins the soil pool.
- Due to the burning of vegetation, lightning etc. the portions of organic matter are released into the atmosphere, and due to the impact of precipitation, they get converted into the inorganic material and ultimately join the soil.
- Waste Material excreted or released by the animals; decomposed by the microbes and which is converted into inorganic elements and which get their way in soluble form to soil storage.
Types of Biogeochemical Cycle
- In this type of cycle, the reservoir is either atmosphere or hydrosphere and it includes Water, Carbon, Nitrogen Cycle etc.
- In this type of cycle, the reservoir is the earth crust and it includes Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Sulphur Cycle etc.