Anthropology Answer Writing Practice - Week 3 - Question 1
90 Days Anthropology Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 18-Dec-2017
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18-Dec-2017 - Question 1
Bring out the distinguishing features of culture and civilization. (15Marks 2013)
- Culture can be defined as a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of the society.
- Civilization is considered as the most advanced stage of culture. It includes material things used by man such as a house, household commodities, weapons, instruments etc.
- The relationship between culture and civilization:
- Culture and civilization are interdependent. Culture needs civilization for further growth and civilization needs culture for its vital force and survival.
- The objects of civilization after a period of time acquire a cultural significance. Civilization tries to put certain limitations on culture - it determines the degree to which cultural activity can be pursued.
- Culture and civilization are interactive - civilization is a vehicle of culture, culture responds to the stages of technological development.
- Every change in culture and its valuations have repercussions on the civilization structure. Civilization is the driving force of society and culture is its steering wheel.
- Civilization has a precise standard of measurement but not culture - while comparing the products of civilization, we can prove which is superior and which is inferior. eg. a car runs faster than a bullock cart. But, there is no measuring rod by which we can assess cultural objects. eg paintings of Picasso may appear to some an abomination while to others they are invaluable.
- Civilization is always advancing but not culture - The various constituents of civilization like machines, means of transport are constantly progressing. But concerning culture, it cannot be asserted that art, literature, thoughts of today are superior to those of the past
- Civilization is transmitted without effort, but not culture - Objects of civilization can be easily adapted form generation or country to another but culture is not adapted with equal facility because it is related to the inner tendency. The adoption of culture depends on personality and nature or people.
- Civilization is borrowed without change or loss, but not culture - eg. railways, motors, machines etc are borrowed as they are from one country to another but the elements of culture such as religion, art, literature are not borrowed in their original character.
- Culture is internal and an end while civilization is external and a means - civilization is inclusive of external things while culture is related to internal thoughts, feelings, ideas and values. Civilization is what we have and culture is what we are.