Anthropology Answer Writing Practice - Week 12 - Question 3

90 Days Anthropology Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 21-Feb-2018

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.

2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded to this page next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

21-Feb-2018 - Question 1

Discuss the divisive factors which disrupt national integration in India. What would you Suggest to Counteract the divisive forces?(250 Words)

Model Answer

Divisive Factors :

1 Diversity of Constituents:

India is a heterogeneous society. It is made of a number of diverse groups. The first potential threat to the Indian nation-state lies in this plurality. The Indian society was and is divided in terms of religion, caste, language and ethnic origin.

2 Regionalism and Cultural Identities

Regionalism is also a threat to national integration. Some of the social elements having their separate cultural identity want to preserve it even at a political level and for this purpose, some of these segments want further reorganization of the states.

We find that national politics in our country is still marked by the emergence of regional nationalities. This is quite evident in the formation of States on linguistic basis. It is also evident in demands by some regional identities such as the Gorkha for Gorkhaland.

3 Casteism

Casteism has always played a dirty role in matters of politics and reservation policy and has created a wide gulf between different segments of society. Unfortunately, the caste system has been recognized by the framers of the Constitution by providing a protective discrimination to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Though the reservation was made for a limited period, it is being extended from time to time. The reservation of seats in the educational institutions and jobs on the caste basis has strengthened the caste feeling and resulted in the possibilities of new types of inequalities and caste conflict.

4 Linguism

Due to linguistic and regional loyalties, the national feeling gradually erodes. Linguistic tensions are manifested in the borders which are bilingual. For example, Goans are divided on the basis of Konkani and Marathi Languages. There is also conflict between Marathi and Kannada-speaking people in Belgaum.

5 Communalism

Broadly defined, communalism refers to the tendency of any socio-religious group to maximize its economic, political and social strength at the cost of other groups. This tendency runs counter to the notion of the secular nation-state that India purports to be. Secularism in the Indian context is defined as the peaceful co-existence of all religions without State patronage to any of them. The State is to treat all of them equally. Yet, in a secular State like India, we very often hear, see and read about communal conflicts. While making conscious efforts towards the goals of democracy and socialism, the India national State has not been free of communal clashes.

6 Social Inequalities:

In every society, there is a system of social stratification. Social stratification refers to inequality in a society based on unequal distribution of goods, services, wealth, power, prestige, duties, rights, obligations and privileges. Take, for example, the social inequalities created by the caste system.

7 Ethnonationality and Ethnic Conflicts:

Ethnonationalism and ethnic conflict have hindered national integration. Whereas the modern concept of nationalism is closely linked with the concept of the nation-state, scholars have described another prevailing notion of nationalism such as religious nationalism, ethnonationalism etc. Although nationhood is denied to the Nagas, the Nagas understand themselves as a nation in the sense of ethnonationality. The concept of ethnonationalism best defines the self-understanding of the ethnic groups in Northeast India in the various forms of their struggle for identity.

Note: The model answer is only for your reference and not an ideal answer for the question.

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