Anthropology Answer Writing Practice - Week 1 - Question 4

90 Days Anthropology Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 06-Dec-2017

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.

2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

04-Dec-2017 - Question 2

How is Darwinism different from Lamarckism? Critically evaluate their contributions.

Model Answer

Lamarckism:

Attempts to explain the similarities and differences among species

Adaptations- are a major component to these theories.

Adaptations are features which make a species better suited to live and reproduce in its environment

The evolutionary theory of Jean-Baptiste Lamark was based on the principle of:

  1. Use and Disuse
  2. Inheritance of acquired traits
The principle of Use and Disuse:

For an organism, new structures appeared in the course of evolution because they were needed. Structures that were present and were used became better developed and increased in size; structures that were not used decreased in size and eventually disappeared

Ex: muscles of an athlete vs. Appendix

Inheritance of Acquired Traits:

Useful characteristics acquired by an individual during its lifetime can be transmitted to its offspring

These acquired traits result in species that are better adapted to their environment

Ex: a giraffe s neck became longer as a result of stretching to reach higher branches. This acquired trait was then passed down to the offspring

Darwinism:

Darwin presented theory of evolution in " origin of species and made 3 observations & 2 deductions

Observation 1: all organism has potential for explosive population that would outstrip their food supply ( idea from Malthus)

Observation 2: population of species remains more or less constant over generation

Deduction1: therefore there must be struggle for existence

Observation 3: nature is full of variations, even in one animal group individuals vary

Deduction2: therefore some of these variations are favored & some are disfavoured

Postulates

1) Overpopulation

2) Struggle for existence: interspecies , intraspecies , struggle against environment

3) Hereditary & variation : Useful , permanent variations are hereditary

4) Survival of fittest /natural selection: nature selects organism with useful variations, therefore, results in differential reproduction

5) Origin of species: individuals selected by environment accumulate variations -- new species.

Note: The model answer is only for your reference and not an ideal answer for the question.
Link to Question 1 - Click Here

 

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