Anthropology Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 6 - Question 2
90 Days Anthropology Answer Writing Practice Question 2 for 17-Dec-2018
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3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.
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17-Dec-2018 - Question 2
Panchayati raj and Social change. 200 words. 10 Marks.
For Question 1 - Click Here
Here, we shall discuss social changes brought about by panchayati raj in village societies as well as tribals societies. Students can expect this question separately on tribals only.
73rd Constitution amendment act, 1992 provided a Constitutional status to three tier bodies of panchayati raj. Now, it became mandatory for all states to have three tier bodies as institutes of participatory democracy for rural India. The act allowed poor and lower castes individuals to raise up to the power positions which were once available only to elite classes and castes(for e.g. dominant castes). The act provided a voice to disadvantaged people to have their say in expenditure priorities in their village (through Gram Sabha).
It was after 1992 that these panchayati raj institutions (PRIs) were given powers under other legislations also e.g. under MGNREGS act 2005. It provides mandatory 100 days employment to rural people with minimum wages secured. Panchayats carryout local public works like laying roads, water harvesting structure etc. It keeps check on village public schools, water resources, primary health centre, anganwadi etc. All these powers are still exercised by local people themselves through Gram sabha. PRI is an innovation in our democracy not inherited from other democracy.
Prepare a case study showing positive impact of panchayati raj on villages.
Though the 73rd amendment act did not apply to scheduled areas. A new PESA act 1996 was legislated for them. It allowed them to preserve their institutions, customs, traditions etc. It entailed powers in Gram Sabha as decision making body. It differentiated between the ‘social unit’ in each tribal region as compared to a ‘revenue village’ in 73rd amendment act. The PESA act gave tribals scope to fight for their problems like land alienation, traditional forest rights, education and so on.
Despite having such robust structure problems in PRI prevail for the want of funds and staff shortage. Also, powers under schedule 11th are not yet delegated to panchayati institutions. On other hand, problems in scheduled and tribal areas are looming large. This is because of ‘conflict of interest’ among tribals and outsiders. In the name of public interest, tribals’ sphere is being looted and they are at the mercy of State. Every now and then acts (PESA AND LAND ACTS) are being amended to allow corporate companies to dig resources. Still, government has not been able to maintain a fine balance between tribal development and national development.
Prepare a case study showing positive impacts of panchayati raj on tribals.
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