Anthropology Answer Writing Practice 2018 - Week 2 - Question 5

90 Days Anthropology Answer Writing Practice Question 1 for 23-Nov-2018

Instructions for Writing Answer

1. Write your answers in the comment section.


2. Experts will provide their feedback in reply.

3. Model Answers will be uploaded on this page the next day.

4. Rectify your mistakes and progress further.

5. All the Best.

23-Nov-2018 - Question 1

Bring out ways in which demographic dividend among Indian population can be achieved. 15 marks. 200 words.

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Model Answer

The demographic dividend refers to the accelerated economic growth that begins with changes in the age structure of a country’s population as it transitions from high to low birth and death rates. The concept of demographic dividend has arisen out of increasing population which is feature of late 20th century and 21st century.
There is relation of demographic dividend to demographic transition of any country. The window provided by transition i.e. more working age group population compared to dependent, does not always remains open. In 2020, India will have median age of 28 years, China will have it 37 and US will have it at 45 years. Even dependency ratio of India is lower than these nations.
There is a dire need for India to harvest dividends out of this transition in order to achieve good economic growth, better employment opportunities, reduction in poverty, improvement in nutrition and education standards and ultimately towards sustainable development. It is important to note that  dividends do not result automatically out of growing population. 
To achieve demographic dividend following steps need to be accomplished.
Favorable National policies : Governments have been coming up with various policies like Digital India, National Education Policy, National Health Policy (ayushman bharat) and so on. These are necessary to keep young population aware of modern technology and developments, to keep working age group (beside others) healthy so that each one of them can effectively contribute.
Investment in human capital. Literacy standards and health standards are important factors to achieve dividends. Among this, todays investment  in skill development of youths will result in thousands of benefits to nation in future (near as well as long term).
Gender Equity. The sense of gender equity in population is very crucial as rising working population is almost having equal division of men and women labourforce. It is important to make workplace harassment free (for all kinds of harassment). It is important to have improved literacy rates in females. This will help in achieving dividend and to reduce fertility rates. Hence, lesser dependency.
Economic policies. After having done all above aspects, government need to have better economic policies like manufacturing, services, trade, export, import etc. It helps young ones to channelise their knowledge and energy.
Reduce dependency of old age population by providing social security like old age pensions, retirement benefits, health packages etc.
While on the path to achieve demographic dividend, it is obvious to have and face challenges like controlling population growth i.e lowering birth rates and death rates. It can be tackled with spreading awareness about proper family planning. Reduction in fertility rates is essential feature here. Southern states have achieved it, northern states need to follow that. Employability of youth graduates is a crucial challenge we have today. It can be tackled by providing them required skills. Though, National skill development Corporation estd in 2009 is already on work. Still, we need to do more lest transition window shall close. Low per capita income and wages in India are much lower than other parallel economies. This pulls our growth backward. Investment in human resources and infrastructure can improve this low income trap. 
To conclude, With fewer young people relative to the population of working-age adults, and with the successful implementation of key national policies over the long term, many countries have reaped the rewards from their demographic dividend. Similar is the chance with India now.


Note: There is no template for a correct UPSC answer, the model answer is only for your reference

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